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Optical Fiber Communication

Optical communications systems play an

increasingly important role in the telecommunications global networks today due to the ever increasing demand for larger transmission capacity, higher speeds of transmission and long haul transmission. Whereas in the past optical communications is only used for transmitting voice channels, optical fiber networks now also carry highspeed internet and cable television signals
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Optically Amplified Optical Communications Systems

An optical transmission system consists of various components That have their own individual roles in ensuring efficient and reliable data communication throughout the

communications network.

The basic components of an optical communication system are shown in Figure


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The basic components of an optical


communication system

The basic components of an optical communication system

A serial bit stream in electrical form is presented to a modulator, which encodes the data appropriately for fiber transmission. A light source (laser or Light Emitting Diode - LED) is driven by the modulator and the light focused into the fiber. The light travels down the fiber (during which time it may experience dispersion and loss of strength).
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The basic components of an optical communication system

At the receiver end the light is fed to a detector and converted to electrical form. The signal is then amplified and fed to another detector, which isolates the individual state changes and their timing. It then decodes the sequence of state changes and reconstructs the original bit stream.1 The timed bit stream so received may then be fed to a using device
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Basic Optical Communication Components

Optical Transmitter: A device that accepts an electrical signal as its input, processes this signal, and uses it to modulate an optoelectronic device, such as an LED or an injection laser diode, to produce an optical signal capable of being transmitted via an optical transmission medium e.g LED , Laser Diode

Basic Optical Communication Components

Amplifier: An optical amplifier is a device which receives some input signal and generates an output signal with higher optical power e.g EDFA, Raman Amplifier

Basic Optical Communication Components

Optical Receiver: The receiver contains some type of fast photo detector, normally a photodiode, and suitable high-speed electronics for amplifying the weak signal and extracting the digital data Optical Modulator: An optical modulator is a device which can be used for manipulating a property of light often of an optical beam, e.g. a laser beam. Depending on which property of light is controlled e.g MZM
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The Optical Fibers

Single Mode Fiber (SMF):Single-mode fibers are optical fibers which are designed such that they support only a single propagation mode for a given wavelength.

The Optical Fibers

Multimode Fiber (MMF):Multimode fibers are optical fibers which support multiple transverse guided modes for a given optical frequency.

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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is a technique where optical signals with different wavelengths are combined, transmitted together, and separated again. It is mostly used for optical fiber communications to transmit data in several (or even many) channels with slightly different wavelengths.
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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Optical communication networks based on WDM offer enormous transmission capacity which is expected to solve many problems in the next-generation Internet network infrastructure.

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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

WDM line systems are already used around the globe, and attention is now turning towards practical issues of the WDM-based local and metropolitan networks. A number of multimedia applications such as video on demand, video conference, distance education and etc. require a vast amount of bandwidth
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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

The demand for networks with high bandwidth is increasing. An optical fiber can provide a large amount of bandwidth (nearly 50 Tb/s by using WDM technology to satisfy the increasing bandwidth demand. WDM technology is able to divide the vast bandwidth of a fiber into a number of highspeed channels each of which is located at different wavelength.
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Optical Performance Monitoring

As optical networks become more transparent, optical performance monitoring (OPM) is gaining interest as a means to monitor signal properties and to manage network faults due to optical impairments. To determine the health of optical signals in optical networks, it is necessary to monitor many parameters in physical layer such as optical power or channel wavelength , optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) , chromatic dispersion , Bit Error Rate (BER) , PMD and Time jitter.
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Classification of Optical Impairments

Optical impairments can be classified into three broad categories: 1) noise; 2) distortion; and 3) timing. Noise: random signal fluctuations that are often treated as a Gaussian process and can be signal level dependent. Distortion: modification of the average signal waveform, for example, the average waveform of the marks and spaces taken separately..
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Classification of Optical Impairments

Timing: fluctuations in the time registration of the bits. Timing jitter can occur as quickly as bit-to-bit or accumulate over many bit periods.

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Physical Impairments

Some physical impairments in the optical fiber, in particular, the chromatic dispersion,, polarization effects, and amplified spontaneous emission noise from the amplifiers.

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Glossary

Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR): is the measure of the ratio of signal power to noise power in an optical channel . Amplified Spontaneous Emission Noise(ASE): is light, produced by spontaneous emission, that has been optically amplified by the process of stimulated emission in a gain medium
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Glossary

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD): is a broadening of the input pulse due to a phase delay between input polarization states

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Glossary

Chromatic Dispersion: Chromatic dispersion is a broadening of the input signal as it travels down the length of the fiber

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Glossary

Jitter: is the time variation of a characteristic of a periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications Laser:A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process called stimulated emission. The term "laser" is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
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Glossary

Bit Error Rate (BER):is the percentage of bits that have errors relative to the total number of bits received in a transmission Dispersion: means the difference in arrival time of the light rays at the output end of an optical fiber
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Modal Dispersion: Different modes travel at different velocities, exist only in multimode fibers

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Glossary

Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N): is expressing the quality of signal in a system. In decibels, S/N is equal to the signal power in decibels minus the noise power in decibels.

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