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# Beyond the 4-Forces

Overview
Lift Equation
Critical Angle of Attack Aircraft Motions and Surfaces

Turning Tendencies
Flaps Wingtip Vortices

LIFT EQUATION:

L = V2 r/2 S CL
Notation:

## S = Wing Surface Area CL = Coefficient of Lift or Angle of Attack

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

L= Lift
Remember, we must generate enough lift to equal or

## exceed our airplanes weight.

The heavier we are, the more lift we will need to

generate.

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

V2 = Aircraft velocity
Speed has great impact on lift Why do we not climb like a rocket?

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

## r = Rho (atmospheric density)

r = P/RT Changes in Pressure?

Changes in Temperature?

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

## S = Surface area of the wing

We can not change this variable, unless we have

## certain types of surface controls.

The bigger the surface, the more lift can be generated,

## however it will also effect drag.

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

Cl = Coefficient of Lift.
This deals with very complicated variables such as aircraft body

## The variable is usually determined complex equations and

A graph is produced.

## What can we change?

The only things we can manipulate is the coefficient of lift, and the velocity.
This is why we can add flaps, and fly at a slower

## airspeed while maintaining the same altitude.

Surface area, in some situations can be changes as well. Reducing weight will decrease the L value.

## Critical Angle of Attack

When the critical angle of attack is exceeded, an

airplane wing will stall The only way to recover from a stall is to reduce the Angle of Attack An airplane will stall at a nearly 18o AOA

## The Wing is the Thing

Axes of Movement

Pitch

Climbs / Descents

Yaw

Roll

## How does an airplane turn?

Horizontal Component of Lift

Turns
We bank an airplane left or right using ailerons
Ailerons essentially change the chord line of a wing Chord line changes + Relative wind = Angle of Attack

## A little to the right a little to the left

Right Turns: Right Aileron deflects upwards, Left

Aileron deflects downwards Left Turns: Right Aileron deflects downwards, Left Aileron deflects upwards

opposite direction.

## A bank in one direction will cause an airplane to yaw into the

Because of an increase in lift on the high wing, we also incur an

increase in (which?) drag on the high wing, which causes a yaw in the opposite direction of the turn, known as

Adverse Yaw, which can be counteracted by rudder. How much rudder to we apply??

## Slips vs. Skids

We turn an airplane by banking it using ailerons
Byproduct of banking is drag (yaw) into the opposite

direction ADVERSE YAW! How much rudder do we use?? We can be too lazy with rudder = Slip Or we can exaggerate rudder use = Skid

## How does an airplane turn?

Horizontal Component of Lift

## The Wing is the Thing

G forces
Gravity or G force is equal to 1
A normal category aircraft (Archer) can withstand:

## +3.8 Gs to -1.52 Gs (Archer no negative Gs approved) What happens beyond this?

Wing Flaps
Flaps are devices that change a wings lift and drag

characteristics Flaps change wings chord line + Angle of Attack = Lift!! Changes the Camber of the wing as well Any Byproducts?

Types of Flaps

## Some pictures of flaps

Slotted

Fowler

Split

Plain

Turning Tendencies
1.) Torque 2.) Propeller factor (P-factor) 3.) Spiraling Slipstream
Prevalent during high power settings, slow airspeeds,

## high angles of attack

Torque
Why would the airplane roll left?

P F a c t o r

P-factor

Spiraling Slipstream

## How manufacturers deal with these problems

Pilots use rudder to compensate for left-turning

## tendencies Manufacturers design airplanes to counteract leftturning tendencies

Angle of Incidence Engine Canting Displaced Rudder

Engine Canting

## Airfoil Out of Ground Effect

Induced Drag Vertical component of lift Lift- Acts 90 degrees to the average relative wind

Relative Wind

E= Downwash Angle

## Airfoil in Ground Effect

Induced Drag Smaller Vertical component of lift Lift

Relative Wind

## Maneuvering Speed (Va)

Defined as: The speed at which a full flight control

## input would not cause structural damage

A speed at which flight maneuvers cannot produce a

damaging force
Any gust or pocket of turbulence cannot create damage

if operating at or below Va

Va Maneuvering Speed
Maneuvering speed is related to aircraft

weight Heavier airplanes have higher Va speeds Lighter airplanes have lower Va speeds

How to Calculate Va
The square root equation
Fuel burns during flight making a/c lighter Always use landing weight

Va Max