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Beyond the 4-Forces

Overview
Lift Equation
Critical Angle of Attack Aircraft Motions and Surfaces

Turning Tendencies
Flaps Wingtip Vortices

Further Lift Principles


LIFT EQUATION:

L = V2 r/2 S CL
Notation:

L = Lift V = Velocity r = Air density

S = Wing Surface Area CL = Coefficient of Lift or Angle of Attack

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

L= Lift
Remember, we must generate enough lift to equal or

exceed our airplanes weight.


The heavier we are, the more lift we will need to

generate.

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

V2 = Aircraft velocity
Speed has great impact on lift Why do we not climb like a rocket?

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

r = Rho (atmospheric density)


r = P/RT Changes in Pressure?

Changes in Temperature?

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

S = Surface area of the wing


We can not change this variable, unless we have

certain types of surface controls.


The bigger the surface, the more lift can be generated,

however it will also effect drag.

L=

2 r/2 V

S CL

Cl = Coefficient of Lift.
This deals with very complicated variables such as aircraft body

shape, inclination, air viscosity, and compressibility. experimentation.

The variable is usually determined complex equations and


A graph is produced.

What can we change?


The only things we can manipulate is the coefficient of lift, and the velocity.
This is why we can add flaps, and fly at a slower

airspeed while maintaining the same altitude.

Surface area, in some situations can be changes as well. Reducing weight will decrease the L value.

Critical Angle of Attack

Critical Angle of Attack

Critical Angle of Attack


When the critical angle of attack is exceeded, an

airplane wing will stall The only way to recover from a stall is to reduce the Angle of Attack An airplane will stall at a nearly 18o AOA

The Wing is the Thing

The Wing is the Thing

Axes of Movement

Pitch

Climbs / Descents
In a steady-state climb:

- All forces become stable - Excess Thrust continues climb


In a steady-state descent:

- All forces become stable - A reduction in thrust is required

Yaw

Roll

How does an airplane turn?


Horizontal Component of Lift

Turns
We bank an airplane left or right using ailerons
Ailerons essentially change the chord line of a wing Chord line changes + Relative wind = Angle of Attack

(i.e. Amount of Lift)

A little to the right a little to the left


Right Turns: Right Aileron deflects upwards, Left

Aileron deflects downwards Left Turns: Right Aileron deflects downwards, Left Aileron deflects upwards

Adverse Yaw
opposite direction.

What is a byproduct of LIFT??

A bank in one direction will cause an airplane to yaw into the


Because of an increase in lift on the high wing, we also incur an

increase in (which?) drag on the high wing, which causes a yaw in the opposite direction of the turn, known as

Adverse Yaw, which can be counteracted by rudder. How much rudder to we apply??

Slips vs. Skids


We turn an airplane by banking it using ailerons
Byproduct of banking is drag (yaw) into the opposite

direction ADVERSE YAW! How much rudder do we use?? We can be too lazy with rudder = Slip Or we can exaggerate rudder use = Skid

Turn Coordinator Indications

How does an airplane turn?


Horizontal Component of Lift

The Wing is the Thing

G forces
Gravity or G force is equal to 1
A normal category aircraft (Archer) can withstand:

+3.8 Gs to -1.52 Gs (Archer no negative Gs approved) What happens beyond this?

Wing Flaps
Flaps are devices that change a wings lift and drag

characteristics Flaps change wings chord line + Angle of Attack = Lift!! Changes the Camber of the wing as well Any Byproducts?

Types of Flaps

Some pictures of flaps

Slotted

Fowler

Split

Plain

Turning Tendencies
1.) Torque 2.) Propeller factor (P-factor) 3.) Spiraling Slipstream
Prevalent during high power settings, slow airspeeds,

high angles of attack

Torque
Why would the airplane roll left?

P F a c t o r

P-factor
Asymmetric loading on descending blade

Spiraling Slipstream

How manufacturers deal with these problems


Pilots use rudder to compensate for left-turning

tendencies Manufacturers design airplanes to counteract leftturning tendencies


Angle of Incidence Engine Canting Displaced Rudder

Engine Canting

Wing Out of Ground Effect

Wing in Ground Effect

Airfoil Out of Ground Effect


Induced Drag Vertical component of lift Lift- Acts 90 degrees to the average relative wind

Relative Wind

E= Downwash Angle

Airfoil in Ground Effect


Induced Drag Smaller Vertical component of lift Lift

Relative Wind

E is flattened out or compressed

Avoiding Wingtip Vortices (Wake Turbulence)

Maneuvering Speed (Va)


Defined as: The speed at which a full flight control

input would not cause structural damage


A speed at which flight maneuvers cannot produce a

damaging force
Any gust or pocket of turbulence cannot create damage

if operating at or below Va

Va Maneuvering Speed
Maneuvering speed is related to aircraft

weight Heavier airplanes have higher Va speeds Lighter airplanes have lower Va speeds

How to Calculate Va
The square root equation
Fuel burns during flight making a/c lighter Always use landing weight

Landing Weight X Max. Gross Weight Landing Weight 1670 X 104

Va Max