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Marketing scholars have developed different models of consumer behavior.

These models are based on system

model in which human analyzed on a system with stimuli

as the input to the system and behavior as the output of the system.

It includes two important models 1. The Nicosia Model 2. Howard Sheth Model 3. Engel, Blackwell and Kollats Multi-Mediation model

Francesco Nicosia, a leading scholar in the field of consumer behavior, gave this model in 1996. Nicosia model consists of four fields under which the

output of one field becomes the input of other fields.

Field one includes output of a firms advertised message for a product which the consumer is not familiar. The message from sub field one reached as input to sub field two.

Sub-Field One Firms Attribute

Message Exposure

Sub-Field Two SC Consumers Attributes

Attitude A

Search Evaluation Experience Field Two: Motivation Field Four: Feed Back Consumption storage Search for and evaluation of means Ends Relations i.e. Pre action Field

Decision i.e. Action

Purchasing Behavior

Field Three: Act Of Purchase

Field one has two sub fields namely firms attributes and

consumer attributes.

The advertisement message from the firm reacts consumers attributes and depending upon the way the message is being received by the consumer, certain attributes may develop up and that becomes the input for field two.

Field two- It is a field of search and evaluation of the

advertised product.

Here the output can be positive or negative motivate to buy the advertised product. Which become the output of field three. If the output of field two is positive motivation to buy a product the it becomes the input for the field three.

Field three- It consist of act of purchase i.e. decision regarding the actual purchase is taken.

Field four- It is the field of storage or usage of the purchased

product. The output of the fourth field is feedback on product sales.

Nicosia Models explains the consumers buying behavior from the marketers perspective and it fails to explain the firms and consumers attributes.

It dont take into account that consumer might be having

a predisposition.

Model is based on following Assumptions:

Consumer behavior is a rational ( logical, sensible)

exercise in purchase problem solving.

Consumer Behavior is a systematic and an orderly

approach caused by inputs i.e. stimuli and the results i.e.

Satisfaction leads to brand loyalty. Dissatisfaction leads to switching to other brands.

Howard and Sheth model based on this theory- what happens between the receipt of stimuli i.e., input and its

action which means buyer behavior i.e. , output. In fact this

model indicates that there are four variables that determine buyers behavior.

The input variables consist of informational cues about the

attributes of a product or brand (i.e. quality, price,

distinctiveness, service, availability).

These informational cues may be significative in that they may

come out from the product itself or they may be symbolic in that they come from impersonal sources like advertising or promotional activities by the firm.

A third set of informational cues may come from the buyer's

social environment (family, reference groups and social class).

These are concerned with buyers motives, attitudes,

experiences and perception and occasion are part of internal variables.

The hypothetical constructs have been classified in two - the

perceptual constructs and the learning constructs.

All the information that is received may not merit `attention' and the intake is subject to perceived uncertainty and lack of meaningfulness of information received (stimulus ambiguity).

Finally, the information that is received, may be, according

to the buyer's own frame of reference and predisposition (Perceptual bias).

The learning constructs deal with the stages from the buyer

motives to his satisfaction in a buying situation.

The purchase intention is an outcome of the interplay of buyer motives, choice criteria, brand comprehension(power of understanding) , resultant brand attitude(way of thinking and the confidence associated with the purchase decision.

As a feedback component of learning, the model includes

another learning construct-satisfaction which refers to the post purchase evaluation.

Exogenous Variables- These are internal state of the buyers for e.g. his/her social class, culture, financial status and time available with him or her

Response out variables

These are based upon the interactions between the above mentioned variables i.e. input variables, internal variables and exogenous variables.

Popularly known as EBIC model It treats individual as a system with outputs i.e. behavior which are responses to inputs and recognizes the

existence of intervening variables between initial inputs

and final outputs.

The model is based on consumers psychological make up.

It depends upon consumer attitude how he perceives the message. It consists of consumers selective exposure, their attention and retention of stimuli related to a


Central control unit- It just work like CPU.As CPU accepts the data process and interprets the data and finally give the output. In the similar manner, central control unit act with the help of psychological filters.

Central Control unit plays different roles: 1.Stored information and the past experiences about the product.

2. Ones general and specific attitude are helpful to

influence the purchase decision. 3. Personality traits are helpful to find out how the consumer is likely to respond.

Decision process Problem recognition Internal search and evaluation External search and evaluation Purchase process Decision outcome Environmental influences Economic cultural Social and Physical factors