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ATRALEX INJECTION

Chemical name: 2,2'-(3,11-dioxo-4,10dioxatridecamethylene)bis(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7dimethoxy-2methyl-1-veratrylisoquinolinium) di(benzenesulfonate

OVERVIEW
Brand Name: Atralex injection Generic Name: Atracurium Besylate an intermediate-duration, nondepolarizing, skeletal muscle relaxant for intravenous administration

Presentation
a clear, colourless or faint yellow sterile solution containing atracurium besylate 10 mg, in each mL of Water for Injections.

Indication

Used as an adjunct to general anesthesia to enable tracheal incubation to be performed.

To relax skeletal muscle during surgery or controlled ventilation.


To facilitate mechanical ventilation in ICU pt.

Mechanism of Action

nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking agent with an intermediate duration of action. Antagonize NT action of Acth by competitively binding with cholinergic receptor sites on the motor endplate of the myoneural junction.

These effects may be inhibited or reversed by the administration of anticholinesterases such as neostigmine or pyridostigmine.

Administration
To avoid distress to the patient, Atracurium Besylate Injection should not be administered before unconsciousness has been induced. To minimise the possibility of overdose,use of a peripheral nerve stimulator is recommended to monitor muscle twitch suppression and recovery in patients using Atracurium Besylate Injection during anaesthesia.

Recommended Dosage

ADULT: Initial dose (0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg) given IV bolus for nonemergency intubation can be expected in 2 -2.5 min, with maximum neuromuscular block achieved approximately 3 -5 minutes after injection. It is potentiated by isoflurane or enflurane anesthesia. The same initial dose of atracurium besylate of 0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg may be used for intubation prior to administration of these inhalation agents

Maintenance dose: for neuromuscular block during prolonged surgery; Dose :- 0.08 to 0.10 mg/kg given 20 to 45 minutes after the initial atracurium dose (depends pt response & requirement) Administered at regular interval apprx 15 to 25 minutes under balance anaesthesia (due to lack cumulative effect)

PAEDIATRIC For > 2years, no atracuriam dose adjustment. Dose: 0.3 to 0.4 mg/kg is recommended as the initial dose for infants (1 month 2 years of age) under halothane anesthesia. Maintenance doses may be required with slightly greater frequency in infants and children than in adults.

Use as infusion
After initial administration, neuromuscular blockade may be maintained in adults and children aged 2 or more years during prolonged surgical procedures, by administering atracurium besylate as a continuous intravenous infusion at a rate of 0.3 to 0.6 mg/kg/hour. Infusion individualized for each patient An initial infusion rate of 9 to 10 micrograms/kg/min may be required to rapidly counteract the spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function

Product Stability
When diluted in these solution to give atricurium besylate conc of > 0.5mg/ml and solutions stable in daylight for stated period and temp up to 30 oC

Infusion Solution
Sodium Chloride IV infusion BP (0.9% w/v)
Glucose IV infusion BP (5% w/v) Ringers injection USP Sodium Chloride (0.18% w/v) and glucose (4% w/v) iv infusion BP Compound Sodium Lactate IV infusion BP (Hartmanns Solution for Injection)

Period of stability
24
8 8 8 4

Storage
Atracurium Besylate Injection should be stored at 2 to 8C. Do not freeze. Protect from light. Any unused atracurium besylate from opened ampoules should be discarded.

Side effects
General: Allergic reactions (anaphylactic or anaphylactoid responses) which, in rare instances, were severe (e.g., cardiac arrest). Musculoskeletal: Inadequate block, prolonged block. Cardiovascular: Hypotension, vasodilatation (flushing), tachycardia, bradycardia. Respiratory: Dyspnea, bronchospasm, laryngospasm. Integumentary: Rash, urticaria, reaction at injection site.

Drug-drug Interaction

Inhalation anaesthetics: atracurium is potentiated by isoflurane and enflurane anaesthesia, and only marginally potentiated by halothane anaesthesia Antibiotics: including the aminoglycosides, polymyxins, spectinomycin, tetracyclines, lincomycin,clindamycin and vancomycin. Antiarrhythmic drugs: lignocaine, procainamide, quinidine. Beta-Blockers: propranolol. Calcium channel blockers: verapamil. Diuretics: frusemide, thiazides, acetazolamide and possibly mannitol. Ganglion blocking agents: trimetaphan, hexamethonium. Others: magnesium sulfate, ketamine, lithium

Precautions

Special caution should be exercised in administering atracurium besylate to patients in whom substantial histamine release would be especially hazardous (e.g., patients with clinically significant cardiovascular disease) and in patients with any history (e.g., severe anaphylactoid reactions or asthma) suggesting a greater risk of histamine release. profound effects in patients with myasthenia gravis, Eaton-Lambert syndrome, or other neuromuscular diseases in which potentiation of nondepolarizing agents has been noted.

Use in pregnancy and lactation


Pregnancy Category C. not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk but caution should be exercised when atracurium besylate is administered to a nursing woman.

Overdosage treatments

The possibility of iatrogenic overdosage can be minimised by carefully monitoring muscle twitch response to peripheral nerve stimulation. Overdosage may increase the risk of histamine release and adverse cardiovascular effects, especially hypotension. If cardiovascular support is necessary, this should include proper positioning, fluid administration, and the use of vasopressor agents if necessary. Recovery may be facilitated by the administration of an anticholinesterase agent such as neostigmine or pyridostigmine, in conjunction with an anticholinergic agent such as atropine.

References
http://www.rxlist.com/tracrium Atralex injection product leaflet