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Learning Theory:

By: Nur Amylea Syazlina Ismail PISMP BI (TESL) 2 SEM 2 2012

Who introduce this theory?

It is introduced by Albert Bandura (1925). He is born in Canada. He is David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University (1953-now)

What is social learning theory?

Social learning theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as:
Observational Learning



General principles of social learning theory?

People can learn by observing the behaviour of others and the outcomes of those behaviours. Learning can occur without a change in behaviour. According to behaviourists, learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behaviour. In contrast, social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. Learning may or may not result in a behaviour change.

Learning is the interaction between an individuals intrinsic motivation and behaviour with the environment.





Cognition plays a role in learning. Over the last 30 years social learning theory has become increasingly cognitive in its interpretation of human learning. Awareness and expectations of future reinforcements or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviours that people exhibit. Social learning theory can be considered a bridge or a transition between behaviourist learning theories and cognitive learning theories.

Banduras Experiment

Banduras Modelling Theory

Using a group of kindergarten children (age 3-6 years); 1963 Bandura and Walters had successfully proved that children normally imitate behaviours of model and even react in a more aggressive manner than the behaviour they have observed. Social behaviours such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, manners and styles, and so on are the result of observation from behaviours outwardly expressed by other people.

According to Banduras theory, learning through observation is a basic form of human behaviour. Observation learning occurs when individuals behaviour are learned from observation of others, who are called models. Bandura asserted people who have been observed would normally be treated as model. And the learning process through the observation of the models behaviour is known as modelling.

Types of Imitation:
Direct Imitation eg: the teacher shows the ways to tackle the ball and is followed by the students. Block imitation behavioural and unblock imitation behavioural eg: using formal/informal call at different places Elicitation Imitation eg: involving emotion and desire. A woman wants to open a stall after seeing others open the stall and profitable.

Learning Process through Observation: Modelling

1) Attention; learning can only occur if there were
concentration effort while observing or the action is done repeatedly. 2) Retention; observation should enable the individual to sustain the behaviour observed in the memory. (Bandura) Actions of behaviour can be sustained in memory by using language and imagination.

3) Reproduction; observation should enable the

individual to repeat the imitated behaviour.

4) Reinforcement/Motivation; an individual
usually imitates and repeats the observed behaviour, if there were satisfaction, i.e. a positive reinforcement or reward. The individual may not repeat the behaviour if there were negative reinforcement, such as punishment or warning.

Real/Live Model
actual person demonstrating the behaviour. Eg: Chef Wan is the real model when hes showing the ways to cook to a group of students.

Symbolic Model

a person or action portrayed in some other medium, , such as television, videotape, computer programs.

Eg: characters in stories

Implications In Teaching & Learning

Teachers presentation should be skilful and interesting so as to become a role model for the pupils to follow. Teachers demonstration should be clear and interesting so that pupils can imitate the procedure easily and accurately Teachers work or examples in the form of handicraft, art painting, articles and so on, which are to be displayed to pupils should be of good quality and high standard.

Teacher can also invite pupils who perform well to become role models to repeat the demonstration inside or outside the classroom. Teachers should impart noble values and use the technique of role play and simulation to exemplify historical characters for the pupils to observe and imitate

Thank You.