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1. The onion has a superficial root system, therefore water will be supplied to the plant will be through the soil, from the area closest to the plant. 2. Onion plants are more sensitive to water stress than other crops and this is due to the inability of the onion leaves to balance water shortages by changing its osmotic capacity. When there is a water shortage, the root system is damaged. The onions root system changes throughout the growing period: it starts with a narrow base and progresses outwards, with the central roots to degenerate For this reason, it is necessary for the water outlet to be close to the root zone and spacing between drippers will be according to the number of rows and width of beds.

Fertilizing through the water has an advantage when using drip irrigation. Nitrogen and phosphorous are essential at the outset of growth, and fertigation enables them to be absorbed and makes them more readily available, depending on the type of fertilizer and soil.

The onion is one crop that requires NPK throughout the growing season, and it is necessary to continue fertilization up to the full drooping of the onion.

The growing period is divided into 4 parts:

1. Sowing to 3 leaves
2. 3-6 leaves 3. 6 leaves to when it stops producing leaves 4. until up to 30% drooping Sowing 3 leaves N P2O5 K2O 2 kg per ha. 0.4 kg per ha. 2 kg per ha. 3-6 leaves 6 leaves stopping leaf production - up to 30% drooping 1.2 kg per ha. 0.25 kg per ha. 1.5 kg per ha.

3.3 kg per ha. 4-6 kg per ha 0.4 kg per ha. 0.4 kg per ha. 2.2 kg per ha. 3.5 kg per ha.

Note: for a high yield 125-150 thousand plants are required.

Irrigation Control:
The onion plant has a small root system, therefore the irrigation frequency is important. The interval between irrigation application is every 1-2 days from the stage of 6 leaves. During periods of high evaporation and high temperatures, it is advantageous to irrigate several times a day.

Plant Protection / Diseases:

Peronospora is a disease that causes the leaves to dehydrate. This disease spreads more rapidly in areas with high humidity. Drip irrigation maintains a relatively low humidity during irrigation, reduces spray applications and decreases the spread of disease in infected areas.

Collecting Laterals:
Subsurface drip: it is possible to cultivate the area precisely and to grow an additional season. Surface drip: laterals will be rewound after cutting, which makes removal easier.

Water Quantities:
Pan evaporation rate:

3-6 leaves 70%-90%

6 leaves end of leaf production 90%-100%

Bulb producing up Full drooping to to 30% drooping harvest 110% 80%

Spacing between drippers 12-14

Locating deep 6-12 1 lateral between every couple

44 inch

Spacing between drippers 12-14

Locating deep 6-12 1 lateral between every couple

68 inch

Water to the root system

Ideal condition Water outlet by the leafs

Water entering to the soil

Wet soil close to the root

Water to the plant

Water to the root system

Bad condition Water outlet by the leafs
Water entering to the soil

Dry soil close to the root, urgent irrigation required

Water to the plant

6 rows 3 laterals, sandy soil

4 rows 2 laterals

Healthy canopy

After rain, there is place for draining water