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BCNF vs 3NF

BCNF: For every functional dependency X->Y in a set F of functional dependencies over relation R, either: Y is a subset of X or, X is a superkey of R 3NF: For every functional dependency X->Y in a set F of functional dependencies over relation R, either: Y is a subset of X or, X is a superkey of R, or Y is a subset of K for some key K of R
N.b., no subset of a key is a key

For every functional dependency X->Y in a set F of functional dependencies over relation R, either: Y is a subset of X or, X is a superkey of R, or Y is a subset of K for some key K of R

3NF Schema
Client, Office -> Client, Office, Account Account -> Office

Account A B A C Joe

Client 1 1 1 2 Mary John Joe

Office

For every functional dependency X->Y in a set F of functional dependencies over relation R, either: Y is a subset of X or, X is a superkey of R, or Y is a subset of K for some key K of R

3NF Schema
Client, Office -> Client, Office, Account Account -> Office

Account A B A C Joe

Client 1 1 1 2 Mary John Joe

Office

BCNF vs 3NF
For every functional dependency X->Y in a set F of functional dependencies over relation R, either: Y is a subset of X or, X is a superkey of R Y is a subset of K for some key K of R
Account A B A C Joe Mary John Joe Client 1 1 1 2 A B A C

3NF has some redundancy BCNF does not Unfortunately, BCNF is not dependency preserving, but 3NF is
Account A B C 1 1 2 Account -> Office Account Joe Mary John Joe Client Office

Office

Lossless decomposition

Client, Office -> Client, Office, Account Account -> Office

No non-trivial FDs

Closure
Want to find all attributes A such that X -> A is true, given a set of functional dependencies F

define closure of X as X*
Closure(X): c=X Repeat old = c if there is an FD Z->V such that Z c and V c then c=cUV until old = c return c

Closure(X): c=X Repeat old = c if there is an FD Z->V such that Z c and V c then c=cUV until old = c return c

BCNFify
For every functional dependency X->Y in a set F of functional dependencies over relation R, either: Y is a subset of X or, X is a superkey of R

BCNFify(schema R, functional dependency set F): D = {{R,F}} while there is a schema S with dependencies F' in D that is not in BCNF, do: given X->Y as a BCNF-violating FD in F such that XY is in S replace S in D with S1={XY,F1} and S2={(S-Y) U X, F2} where F1 and F2 are the FDs in F over S1 or S2 (may need to split some FDs using decomposition) End return D

B-tree Insertion
INSERTION OF KEY K
find the correct leaf node L; if ( L overflows ){ split L, by pushing the middle key upstairs to parent node P;

if (P overflows){
repeat the split recursively; } else{

}

B-tree deletion - pseudocode

DELETION OF KEY K locate key K, in node N if( N is a non-leaf node) { delete K from N; find the immediately largest key K1; /* which is guaranteed to be on a leaf node L */ copy K1 in the old position of K; invoke this DELETION routine on K1 from the leaf node L; else { /* N is a leaf node */ if( N underflows ){ let N1 be the sibling of N; if( N1 is "rich"){ /* ie., N1 can lend us a key */ borrow a key from N1 THROUGH the parent node; }else{ /* N1 is 1 key away from underflowing */ MERGE: pull the key from the parent P, and merge it with the keys of N and N1 into a new node; if( P underflows){ repeat recursively } } } Slide from Mitch Cherniak and George Kollios