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Pneumatic Power

Pneumatic Power
Pneumatic power Pneumatics vs. hydraulics Early pneumatic uses Properties of gases Pascals Law Perfect gas laws Boyles Law Charles Law Gay-Lussacs Law Common pneumatic system components Compressor types Future pneumatic possibilities

Pneumatic Power
Pneumatics
The use of a gas flowing under pressure to transmit power from one location to another Gas in a pneumatic system behaves like a spring since it is compressible.

Pneumatics vs. Hydraulics


Pneumatic Systems . . .
Use a compressible gas Possess a quicker, jumpier motion Are not as precise Require a lubricant Are generally cleaner Often operate at pressures around 100 psi Generally produce less power

Early Pneumatic Uses


Bellows
Tool used by blacksmiths and smelters for working iron and other metals

Early Pneumatic Uses


Otto von Guericke
Showed that a vacuum can be created Created hemispheres held together by atmospheric pressure

Early Pneumatic Uses


Americas First Subway
Designed by Alfred Beach Built in New York City Completed in 1870 312 feet long, 8 feet in diameter Closed in 1873

Properties of Gases
Gases are affected by 3 variables
Temperature (T) Pressure (p) Volume (V)

Gases have no definite volume Gases are highly compressible Gases are lighter than liquids

Properties of Gases Absolute Pressure


Gauge Pressure: Pressure on a gauge does not account for atmospheric pressure on all sides of the system Absolute Pressure: Atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure
Gauge Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure = Absolute Pressure

Properties of Gases
Absolute Pressure
Pressure (p) is measured in pounds per square inch (lb/in.2 or psi) Standard atmospheric pressure equals 14.7 lb/in.2
If a gauge reads 120.0 psi, what is the absolute pressure?

120.0 lb/in.2 + 14.7 lb/in.2 = 134.7 lb/in.2

Properties of Gases Absolute Temperature


0F does not represent a true 0 Absolute Zero = -460.F Absolute Temperature is measured in degrees Rankine (R) R = F + 460. If the temperature of the air in a system is 65 F, what is the absolute temperature?
Answer: 65 F + 460. = 525 R

Pascals Law
Pressure exerted by a confined fluid acts undiminished equally in all directions.

Pressure: The force per unit area exerted by a fluid against a surface

F p A

Symbol

Definition Pressure Force Area

Example Unit lb/in.2 lb in.2

p F

Pascals Law Example


How much pressure can be produced with a 3 in. diameter (d) cylinder and 50 lb of force?

d = 3 in. F = 50 lb

p=? A=?

Formula

A r 2

Formula
2

Sub / Solve A .5 )2 ( 1 Final A 7.1in.

Sub / Solve

Final

F p A 50 lb p 7.1in.2 lb p 7.0 2 in.

Perfect Gas Laws


The perfect gas laws describe the behavior of pneumatic systems
Boyles Law Charles Law Gay-Lussacs Law

Boyles Law
The volume of a gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure exerted on it.

p1 (V1) = p2 (V2)
Symbol Definition Volume Example Unit in.3

NASA

Boyles Law Example


A cylinder is filled with 40. in.3 of air at a pressure of 60. psi. The cylinder is compressed to 10. in.3. What is the resulting absolute pressure? p1 = 60. lb/in.2 V1 = 40. in.3 p2 = ? V2 = 10. in.3 Convert p1 to absolute pressure. p1 = 60. lb/in.2 + 14.7 lb/in.2 = 74.7 lb/in.2

Formula

Sub / Solve 74.7

lb ( 0.in. )3 0.in. ) 4 1 p2 ( 2 in. 2988 in . lb p2 32 10.in.


p 2 3.0 102
lb in2

p( )1 p) V ( 2 V 1

Final

Charles Law
Volume of gas increases or decreases as the temperature increases or decreases, provided the amount of gas and pressure remain constant.

NASA

V1 V2 T1 T2

Note: T1 and T2 refer to absolute temperature.

Charles' Law Example


An expandable container is filled with 28 in.3 of air and is sitting in ice water that is 32F. The container is removed from the icy water and is heated to 200.F. What is the resulting volume?
V1 = 28in.3 V2 = ? T1 = 32F T2 = 200.F Convert T to absolute temperature. T1 = 32F + 460.F =492R T2 = 200.F + 460.F =660R

Charles' Law Example


An expandable container is filled with 28 in.3 of air V1 V2 and is sitting in ice water Formula T1 T2 that is 32F. The container is removed from the icy V2 28 in.3 water and is heated to Sub / Solve 492R 660.R 200F. What is the 18480 in3 R resulting volume? V
V1 = 28in.3
V2 = ?

492 R

T1 = 32F T2 = 200.F Convert T to absolute temperature T1 = 32F + 460.F = 492R T2 = 200F + 460.F = 660R

Final

V2 38 in.3

Gay-Lussacs Law
Absolute pressure of a gas increases or decreases as the temperature increases or decreases, provided the amount of gas and the volume remain constant.

p1
T1

p2
T2

Note: T1 and T2 refer to absolute temperature. p1 and p2 refer to absolute pressure.

Gay-Lussacs Law Example


A 300. in.3 sealed air tank is sitting outside. In the morning the temperature inside the tank is 62F, and the pressure gauge reads 120. lb/in.2. By afternoon the temperature inside the tank is expected to be close to 90.F. What will the absolute pressure be at that point?

V = 300. in.3 p1 = 120. lb/in.2 p2 = ?

T1 = 62F T2 = 90.F

Formula

p1
T1

p2
T2

p2 134.7lb / in.2 Sub / Solve 522R 550.R Convert p to absolute pressure. 2 + 14.7 lb/in.2 74085 lb / in2 R p1= 120. lb/in. p2 = 134.7 lb/in.2 522 R
Convert T to absolute temperature. T1 = 62F + 460.F = 522R T2 = 90.F + 460.F = 550.R
Final

p2 140 lb / in.2

Gay-Lussacs Law Example


A 300 in.3 sealed air tank is sitting outside. In the morning the temperature inside the tank is 62F, and the pressure gauge reads 120 lb/in2. By afternoon the temperature inside the tank is expected to be closer to 90F. What will the absolute pressure be at that point?

Final

p2 141.9 lb / in.

If the absolute pressure is 141.9 lb/in.2, what is the pressure reading at the gauge?
141.9 lb/in.2 14.7 lb/in.2 = 127.2 lb/in.2 = 130 lb/in.2

Common Pneumatic System Components


Transmission Lines Regulator

Filter
Drain Receiver Tank

Directional Control Valve

Cylinder Pressure Relief Valve Compressor

National Fluid Power Association & Fluid Power Distributors Association

Compressor Types

Compair

Reciprocating Piston Compressor

Compressor Types

Compair

Rotary Screw Compressor

Compressor Types

Compair

Rotary Vane

Future Pneumatic Possibilities


What possibilities may be on the horizon for pneumatic power? Could it be human transport?

zapatopi.net

Image Resources
Compair. (2008). Compressed air explained: The three types of compressors. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://www.compair.com/About_Us/Compressed_Air Explained-03The_three_types_of_compressors.aspx Johnson, J.L. (2002). Introduction to fluid power. United States: Thomson Learning, Inc. Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip Art. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2008). Boyles law. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from http://www.grc.nasa.gov/ National Fluid Power Association. (2008). What is fluid power. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from http://www.nfpa.com/OurIndustry/OurInd_AboutFP WhatIsFluidPower.asp National Fluid Power Association & Fluid Power Distributors Association. (n.d.). Fluid power: The active partner in motion control technology. [Brochure]. Milwaukee, WI: Author. Zapato, L. (n.d.) The inteli-tube pneumatic transportation system. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from http://zapatopi.net/inteli-tube/