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Title Gas and Steam turbines

Presented by

Sathish Kumar P K (PR11ME1023)

Simplistic Gas Turbines working principles

1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1

Isentropic compression (in a compressor) Constant pressure heat addition (in a combustor) Isentropic expansion (in a turbine) Constant pressure heat rejection

Gas Turbine components

Inlet system Collects and directs air into the gas turbine. Often, an air cleaner and silencer are part of the inlet system. It is designated for a minimum pressure drop while maximizing clean airflow into the gas turbine. Compressor Provides compression, and, thus, increases the air density for the combustion process. The higher the compression ratio, the higher the total gas turbine efficiency . Low compressor efficiencies result in high compressor discharge temperatures, therefore, lower gas turbine output power. Combustor Adds heat energy to the airflow. The output power of the gas turbine is directly proportional to the combustor firing temperature; i.e., the combustor is designed to increase the air temperature up to the material limits of the gas turbine while maintaining a reasonable pressure drop.

Gas Producer Turbine Expands the air and absorbs just enough energy from the flow to drive the compressor. The higher the gas producer discharge temperature and pressure, the more energy is available to drive the power turbine, therefore, creating shaft work. Power Turbine Converts the remaining flow energy from the gas producer into useful shaft output work. The higher the temperature difference across the power turbine, the more shaft output power is available. Exhaust System Directs exhaust flow away from the gas turbine inlet. Often a silencer is part of the exhaust system. Similar to the inlet system, the exhaust system is designed for minimum pressure losses.

Advantages of Gas turbine 1) No cooling water Free from water trouble(leakage, cooling, boiling, waste) No cooling system 2) Low vibration The static vibration of gas turbine is 1/4 of that of diesel engine The dynamic weight of gas turbine is 110% or less of GTG weight while it is about 50% for diesels. 3) Low noise Gas turbine produced noise is at high frequency, which is easy to attenuate. 4) Reliable starting High starting reliability is achieved by; forced ignition for Gas turbine (Diesel engine by natural ignition) low trouble ratio of Gas turbine due to simple structure and less auxiliary compared with diesel engine

Steam Turbines
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

High Pressure Steam expands through a governor valve and a nozzle. Experiences an increase in velocity and momentum Pushes the impeller to drive the turbine.

Non-Condensing (Back-pressure) Turbine

Usually, the steam sent into the mains is not much above saturation temperature.3 The term back-pressure refers to turbines that exhaust steam at atmospheric pressures and above. The specific CHP application establishes the discharge pressure. 50, 150, and 250 psig are the most typical pressure levels for steam distribution systems. District heating systems most often use the lower pressures, and industrial processes use the higher pressures. Industrial processes often include further expansion for mechanical drives, using small steam turbines for driving heavy equipment that runs continuously for long periods. Power generation capability reduces significantly when steam is used at appreciable pressure rather than being expanded to vacuum in a condenser. Discharging steam into a steam distribution system at 150 psig can sacrifice slightly more than half the power that could be generated when the inlet steam conditions are 750 psig and 800F, typical of small steam turbine systems.

Extraction Turbine

The extraction turbine has opening(s) in its casing for extraction of a portion of the steam at some intermediate pressure before condensing the remaining steam. The steam extraction pressure may or may not be automatically regulated. Regulated extraction permits more steam to flow through the turbine to generate additional electricity during periods of low thermal demand by the CHP system. In utility type steam turbines, there may be several extraction points, each at a different pressure corresponding to a different temperature. The facilitys specific needs for steam and power over time determine the extent to which steam in an extraction turbine is extracted for use in the process.