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## Carton Packaging WorldClassic

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Outline

## 2.Folding carton box template structure

3.Terms 4.Mathematics in the folding carton structure design 5. Folding carton functional structure design

6. Corrugated Carton
7. Paper bag 8.Cushion packaging

10.Carbon footprint

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## 1. Carton Packaging World

Many people mistaked that carton packaging is the combination of the box template structural design and graphic design. In fact, the carton packaging is far more than that. In this chapter we will explain by two small examples : the carton packaging is a macrocosm, this industry is promising if you get involved.

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## Sample 1 Carton Packaging World

1.1 The cost difference between two minor difference box templates with specific cardboard size

The client needs the packaging box structure shown above, the carton box size is 80*45*100(mm)cardboard

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## Sample 1 Carton Packaging World

1.1 The cost difference between two minor difference box templates

Select carton box template A, draw the die line template according to the carton box size

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## Sample 1 Carton Packaging World

1.1 The cost difference between two minor difference box templates with specific cardboard size
It can step and repeat 12 boxes in the standard-sized sheet(NoteThis sample haven't take into account the loaded knife rationality factors

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## Sample 1 Carton Packaging World

1.1 The cost difference between two minor difference box templates with specific cardboard size
We can switch to carton box template B, its shape is exactly the same with box template A.

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## Sample 1 Carton Packaging World

1.1 The cost difference between two minor difference box templates with specific cardboard size

## save paper more than 20%.

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## 1.2 The carton packaging design impacts on transportation

Because of the difference of the buffer design, cardboard material selection and structural design, the carton packaging design will have a significant impact on transportation. http://www.packmage.com 9 / 93

## 1.2 The carton packaging design impacts on transportation

Container size591cm*234cm

89 pieces

## The area increase 2%, while cost increase 11%

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Folding carton

Carton box

Glued carton

Carton packaging

Corrugated box

Paper bag
11

Tubes

Folding carton

Trays

## Tubes and Trays

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Tubes Folding

## 2.1 The definition of tubes

It originally refers to the smallest box lid area amang, such as toothpaste boxes, such as toothpaste box.

Now, it is generally defined from the molding characteristics: it refers to the carton box that need both the lid and bottom closure panel fixed or sealed during the molding process.

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Tubes Folding

## 2.1.1 The structure of the tubes

1234-Panels

5-Closure panel
6-Dust flap 7-Glue flap 8-Closure panel 9-Tuck flap

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Tubes Folding

## Commonly closure structures

1. Friction Tuck
2. Seal end 3. Locking tab 4. Push-in closure

5. Concave/Convex
6. Glued sealing 7. Snap lock bottom 8. Automatic lock bottom

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## 2.1.2.1 Friction Tuck

The sealing structure uses the friction between the tongue, dust flap and the panels to achieve and maintain sealing, the sealing strength and reliability is poor, suitable for small, lightweight daily necessities and pharmaceutical packaging.

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## 2.1.2.4 Seal end

The locking strength and reliability of the sealend structure is higher, but it is less convenient.

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## carton structure analysis

2.1.2.6 Push-in

closure

Each flap is part of the pattern, after plug-in the flaps composite a beautiful pattern.

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## 2.1.2.5 Locking tab

The locking tab structure combined the friction and lock end sealing structure. With high sealing strengt and reliability, it is suitable for heavier contents.

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## carton structure analysis

2.1.2.7 Concave/Convex

The Concave Convex structure with the own strength and stiffness of the cardboard, deformation of straight or curved creasing line on the box, depressed flaps to achieve sealing.
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## 2.1.2.8 Glued sealing

The glued sealing structure with the panels attached to the flap stick together.

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## carton structure analysis

2.1.2.9 Snap lock bottom Snap lock bottom also called 1-2-3 closure, the bottom structure is simple, aesthetic and economic with strength and tightness, it is the most commonly used lock bottom structure and widely used in cosmetics, alcohol and food packaging.

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## carton structure analysis

2.1.2.9 Snap

lock bottom

When we drawing the 1-2-3 bottom structure, we usually draw first part of the closure, there is no strict limit to the size of A, generally consistent with proportions of the box length. The vertical distance of the recessed portion and the creasing line of the length must be 1/2 of the width.

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## 2.1.2.10 Automatic lock bottom

The automatic lock bottom refers to the body and the bottom of the box can be folded into a flat plate shape, and the bottom of the box can be automatically restored to the sealing status when the box stretched.The structure is complex and the cost is higher than other boxes.
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## carton structure analysis

2.1.2.10 Automatic

lock bottom

From the automatic lock bottom structure, we can see both the flap and width angle of the box are 45 , it is to avoid overlapp when folding. Part A is the locking tab which is located the intersection of 1/2 length and 1/2 width of the box, it is to enhance the lock strength.

The shade area is the glued part, it is folded on the opposite direction. The larger size the glued part, the more firmly. The 2 slash on Part B is to facilitate waste remove from the slash after carton box diecutting. The 3mm width in part C is to prevent the carton rupture after multilayer paper overlapped.
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Tubes Folding

## Widely used tube folding carton box template

1. Reverse tuck 2. Straigt tuck 3. Airplane style 4. French reverse tuck 5. Snap lock bottom 6. Automatic lock bottom

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Widely used tube box templates Tubes Folding carton structure analysis

## 2.1.3.1 Reverse tuck

The reverse tuck also abbreviated as RTE, it is the most primitive box template.
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Widely used tube box templates Tubes Folding carton structure analysis

## The straight tuck also abbreviated as STE.

Its drawback is that the two projections, when step and repeat it wastes paper material, but it is suitable used for the window style box.

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Widely used tube box templates Tubes Folding carton structure analysis

## 2.1.3.3 Airplane style

As the name suggested, the airplane style box template shape looks likethe aircraft, its basic function and purpose is the same with straight tuck.

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Widely used tube box templates Tubes Folding carton structure analysis

## 2.1.3.4 French reverse tuck

The French reverse tuck box template abbreviated as FRENCH STE. Its advantage is maintain the integrity of the display surface, the contents of the design can be extended to the lid of the box, it has became commonly used box template for cosmetics packaging.

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Tubes Folding

## 10 principles of the folding carton structure design

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## plain tuck flapIndividual packaging, do not need to consider pollution,

scattered factors slit-lock tuck flapThe tuck structure is more conducive to the production and operation compare to the glued structure

2One time open or multiple times open during usage slit-lock tuck flap:It offers more secure closure design than the one time open, mainly used on heavier content packaging.

plain tuck flapIt keeps the integrity of the folding carton with multiple
times open.

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## 2.1.4.1 10 principles 3~5

3Heavy weight products tuck and tongue lockIt provide a very secure cover design

4Whether consumers expect to be able to see the product before buying? Aperture or windowThe product can be see clearly Plain tuck flapThe customer could even touch the product. 5Whether the products need to be leak-proof structure double-glued end sealsThe non-independent packaging product coated with glue on two dust flaps and the back cover, which is more effective to prevent leakage.

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## carton structure analysis

2.1.4.1 10 principles ~6

6Which process included in the carton packaging production? Each process in carton packaging production can be completed by equipment or by hand, it should be equipped with a different design on manual, semi-automatic or automatic production.

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## 2.1.4.1 10 Principles 7~8

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2.2 Trays

## The definition of Trays

The tray is folded by a cardboard with right angles or diagonally angles. The tray folding carton is suitable for packing shoes, hats, clothing, food and gifts. The commonly tray structure and the name of each part listed in the photo.

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## 2.1.4.1 10 Principles 9~10

9How to use the folding carton The folding carton design need to consider how it could be storaged. On the dresser or drawers? Medicine cabinet or refrigerator? Easy to open, accessible and tear lines and other auxiliary design should considered in the carton box design. 10How to sale the product Excellent folding carton design is helpful for the sales display It need to provide a stable and attractive display way.

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## 2.2.1 Molding method

Each panel of the tray folding carton need to be connected with certain structure, the concrete molding method include: 1Fold assembly 2Lock connection

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## 2.2.3 Top and Base

atop lid

bcap lid

c)Buckle lid

The lid, body of the box are mutually independent with open structure, the inner dimension of the lid is slightly larger than the outer size of the tray to ensure that the lid can be smoothly cover on the body. The top and base structure used for shoes, clothing and assembled goods. a) Top lidThe height of the lid equal to the height of the box so that it almost cover up all the box body. b) Cap lidThe height of the lid is less than the height of the body, generally only covering the upper opening portion of the body. c) Buckle lidThe body with matching edge to seam with the lid, the height of the box equal to the height of the lid and the height of the matching edge of the box body.
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## Slant lock structure

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## 2.2.4 Typical lid structure

aBody

bLid

It also known as drawer lid. Lid is an independent piece, box body can be drawn within the lid forward.

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## Commonly tray structure

1. Double side wall 2. Foot lock 3. 4-spot glued 4. 6-spot guled

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## 2.2.5.1 Double side wall

As the name suggested, the wall structure of the tray has doubled, it is easy of production, various parts folded completely, normally can be made of top and base box.

Since the glued part need to be folded to form the double side wall, its maximum value can not exceed the depth of the box subtracting the thickness of the paper.

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## 2.2.5. 2 Foot lock

The foot lock plays both the foot and lock rule of the box. The size of the male lock is smaller than the size of the female lock in the box lock structure, the male lock is drawn to the inside with 15 angle, and the female lock is 15 angle to the outside. The four fixed flaps folded can not affect the lock, it is the relationship between C and C-2B in the tray structure.

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## 2.2.5.3 Four-spot glued tray

Four-spot glued tray is one of the most simple and valuable box template, it also named Beers tray, mainly for packing shirts, sweaters, food and toys etc.

The biggest characteristics of Fourspot glued box is the lid and the bottom of the tray can be completely the same size to match perfectly, unlike other trays, the lid must be bigger than the bottom.

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## 2.2.5.4 Six-spot glued tray

The change and design of the sixspot glued tray is on the basis of four-spot glued tray.It is widely used in frozen food, fish, seafood, vegetables packaging fields.

The width of the lid is 2 times bigger than the width of the bottom.

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## 3.The characteristics of folding carton

Outline 1. The bearing characteristics 2. The influence of the two sides of the paper on structure design 3. The Offset 4. The texture direction 5. The texture direction design of Tubes 6. The texture direction design of Tubes with curved surface

## 7. The texture direction design of Trays

8. The texture direction design of regular polygon trays

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The

## 3.1 The bearing characteristics

As we all know but may not pay special attention to the phenomenon: the bearing force of flat sheet cardboard is small, once creasing and properly folded, it could bear great pressure.

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## The characteristics of folding carton

3.2 The influence of the two sides of the paper on structure design No matter ordinary cardboard or corrugated board has two sides, ordinary cardboard has a surface layer and a bottom layer, corrugated cardboard has out layer paper and inner layer paper. It influences the molding when folding, which need to be taken into account in the structure design.

aInner fold 90 bOuter fold 90 cInner fold dOuter fold 1-bottom layer 2-surface layer 3-bottom layer 4-surface layer

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The

## characteristics of folding carton

3.3 The influence of the two sides of the paper on structure design

There is an example

Caliper 2mm, Length 40mm.The creasing line is on the middle of the cardboard. Then we start to fold.

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The

## characteristics of folding carton

3.4 The influence of the two sides of the paper on structure design

There're two concerns: 1. the length of the cardboard is 40 mm before folding, after folding the inner size isn't 40/2=20mm,it is 19mm because of the caliper. 2. The first statement is not entirely accurate,because of the two sides of the paper, when folding on the middle, the internal loss is different with different specifications of the cardboards, it need to be taken into account.
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The

## characteristics of folding carton

3.6 The Offset Because of the dust flap under the cover, to be strictly the panel connect with the cover should add a caliper, else the cover will be hindered by the dust flap when folding. The additional caliper is offset.

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The

## 3.7 The texture direction

During the folding carton manufacturing process, the creasing line can effectively control the cardboard deformation, its role can not be ignored.As the fiber orientation, so that the cardboard folding onthe creasing line, the force on the transverse indentation line (the line parallel to the creasing line) is bigger than the longitudinal creasing line (the line parallel to longitudinal creasing line), so the bounce of transverse creasing line is bigger, thus increasing tension of the cardboard surface and enhance the strength of the carton. As the fiber alignment, and the stiffness and binding force for the same kind of cardboard longitudinal fiber were greater than the transverse, which leads to the longitudinal stiffness greater than the transverse board; in addition, because most of the carton stacking flat folded for transportation and storage, so the carton need resistance to repeated folding to avoid the creasing line crack which might affect the appearance and strength of carton. Thus when design the texture direction of the folding cartion, it needs to consider the different of vertically and horizontally physical properties of the cardboard and the creasing line position.
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The

## 3.8 The texture direction design of Tubes

Generally, the longitudinal texture should be vertical with the main creasing line

It makes the 4 surfaces of the box body smooth, avoid ballooning phenomenon. It is helpful to high speed gluer machine. The creasing line is not easy to burst and break(especially on thick paper ). When the carton size is smaller and

## accuracy requirement is not too high, it

could apply mixed step and repeat ignore the texuture direction, thereby saving cost.

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The

## 3.9 The texture direction design of Tubes with curved surface

The bending resistance of the sheet transverse(parallel to the texture direction) is smaller than longitudinal,which means the cardboard transverse bending easier, with the curved surface, the texture direction of the folding carton should be perpendicular to the curved creasing line. We can clearly the horizontal of box a is easy to bend so that the box body is formed into a very smooth arch.While box b on the contrary, because the creasing line design of paperboard is unreasonable caused the box body distortion.
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The

## 3.10 The texture direction design of Trays

The length direction of the tray folding carton should be perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cardboard.In this case it provides higher stiffness in a short span, facilitates the cartons strong and straight, and the transverse creasing line on the length direction gives the carton more strength.

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The

## 3.11 The texture direction design of regular polygon trays

The texture direction design of the regular polygon tray, one plan is the longitudinal cardboard parallel to one of the box bottom corner angle bisector, another is longitudinal cardboard vertical to one of the box bottom corner angle bisector.Both two kinds of texture design have deficiencies, both affected the carton folding. The hexagonal box also has the problem. With the increase of the number of polygon box bottom, gradually tend to circle,the circle has no direction, so the more sides the polygon tray has, the smaller difference of the two kinds of plans, but the best choice is texture direction design which the board longitudinal vertical to the bisector lines of the bottom angle.

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The

## 3.12 The texture direction design

For irregular folding cartons, the texture direction design should obey the basic cardboard texture direction design rules, but the irregular box has uncertainty, we suggest make samples to test first then choose which one texture direction design is more reasonable.

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## 4. Mathematics in the folding carton structure design

Mainly because of the mechanical and physical properties, the folding carton structure exist many mathematical relationships.

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Mathematics

## 4.1 How to decide the inner size of the carton box

We often see some carton packaging rupture, deformation during transportation,this kind of circumstance except the paper strength is not enough, collision, one big issue is packaging size relatively big than the product. Generally, the length and width of the inner size of the carton box should be one caliper larger than the product, the depth should be 2 times caliper larger than the product.

For example, if the product size is 10*10*15 cm, caliper is 1mm, the inner size of the carton box should be 10.1*10.1*15.2cm.

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Mathematics

## in the folding carton structure design

4.2 The size relationship of the small middle reverse tuck folding carton
The glue flap size 10~16mm

Width(mm) 1620 2024 2438 3857 57108 Length(mm) 2030 3060 The dust flap size could be bigger or smaller than the value in the formula, but can not be more than 1/2 Length, else they will be overlapped.
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Tuck(mm) 10 13 16 20 22 Tuck(mm) 3 5 7

60120

## Female lock=Male lock+2mm

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Mathematics

## 4.3 Tube folding carton structure design

1. The straight line on the inserted cover for friction locking function, the size of the cover changed based on the carton size, generally it is 20mm, with two R angles;

## 2. Glue flaps 10-16mm

3. Compare to outter layer the inner layer sealing face should be smaller; 4. The angle of the dust flap should be less or equal than 15 ; 5. The dust flap size should be smaller than the width of the box; 6. The outter layer sealing face size less or equal to the width of the box; 7. The right side face size is slightly less than the width of the box 0.8mm; even for heavy cartons, should reduce the cardboard caliper because the glue flap and right side face are jointed together, there will be one more caliper on the right side face. 62 / 93

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Mathematics

## 4.4 Tube folding carton structure design

1. The tuck lock 0.8mm(generally 0.8mm or cardboard caliper); 2. The tuck lock sealing design; 3. Dust flap design 4. The second angle of the dust flap is 15 ; 5. The first angle of the dust flap is 45; 6. The top closure panel shoulder is 6mm 7. The dust flap shoulder is 6mm 8. The tuck lock on the small carton box generally is 10mm.

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## 5. Folding carton functional structure design

Outline:

1. Handle design
2. Hanging hole design 3. Window design 4. Displays design 5. Easy to open design 6. Dispenser design 7. Lining design

## 8. Partition wall design

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Folding

## carton functional structure design

5.1 Handle
The handle structure is designed to facilitate consumers. 1Requirements

## enough strength, safe and reliable;

the box body or local strength can not be weakened; proper size and do not harm the hand; decoration

## 2split structure and overall structure

The split structure is the handle and box body independent of each other The overall structure is the handle or handle hole designed directly on the box body
30mm

3Size The palm wide generally between 70-100mm, thickness around 20-40mm.The width of the handle is generally above 20mm, heavier goods the width should take larger values to ensure the strength.

100mm

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Folding

## Design the hanging holes on the

carton box so that the goods can be displayed on the shelves. The hanging hole and the content

## gravity should on the same

vertical line.Hanging hole is mainly in the form of round, rectangle, rounded triangle etc.

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Folding

## carton functional structure design

5.3 Window

Open window on the carton box, glue transparent sheets of thin plastic or glass paper, so that the product inside could show in front of consumers.
There has one window, double or three window structure, the location of window is to fully display the inner product. The window profile need to enhance the decoration, such as plum, heart shaped etc.The window position, size and shape should coordinate with the carton decoration patterns, text and box liner.

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Folding

## 5.4 Easy to open structure

Easy open structure is the local structure to facilitate consumer open the carton packaging more conveniently. Tear portOpen a gap near the cover or sealing location, tear the port when need to open the packaging. Half cutting lineCutting line on the carton opening position, depth is half of the cardboard caliper, when the need to open the packaging, tear the half cutting line when need to open the packaging. Dentate lineOn the carton opening port, with 1.5 1.5mm, 1.5 0.75mm, with corrugated dentate knife and other different types of dentate knife presse the dentate line, tear the dentate line when need to open the packaging. Zipper lineAdd the cutting line on the carton opening port like a zipper, tear it when in use.

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Folding

## carton functional structure design

5.5 Dispenser

The dispenser carton box can conveniently pour out the contents, reducing it scattered, it is suitable for powder, particle and liquid goods

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Folding

## carton functional structure design

5.6 Partition
The partition structure used to protect of the fragile commodity such as ceramics, glass packaging to prevent breakage. It can be divided into integral partition structure and split partition structure. The Integral partition structure takes advantages of the carton body panels or flaps extended the lining design.It saves the process, easy for processing and it is environment friendly.

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Folding

## carton functional structure design

5.6 Partition

The split partition structure is mutually independent with the box body, it is the accessory for the carton. It is relatively easy. when it inserted into the box, the contents being partitioned and located in the holes.

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Folding

## carton functional structure design

5.7 Displays

The Displays shown the goods under certain support.The cover of the carton can be folded to the lower box body so that the box body display tiltly, it is very suitable for attracting consumers.

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6. Corrugated box

The corrugated box can be divided into slot, set-up and folding carton three basic types according to the processing methods. Slot The slot box template with a cardboard through cutting, creasing and folding, The side flap need to be stapled or glued. It can be folded into a flat shape for storage and transportation. Set up Generally composed by two parts, the box body, cover and bottom seperated independently, when using they can be set up together. Folding carton The box template through processing, folding and does not require any nails or glue.Such as 04 type box template.

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Corrugated box

6.1 Slot

Slot cartonIt is the most commonly carton structure.It is mainly used for food

## p a c k a g i n g . Based on this box template

there are many changes for special structure protection.

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Corrugated box

## 6.2 Half slot carton

Half slot cartontypical sample is the step up transport container and shelf
packaging for fruit, vegetables. The structure include top and base box template and shallow box structure.

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Corrugated box

## 6.4 FEFCO standard box template

The international commonly box template and code: the box template code consists of four digits, top two on behalf of box template, last two on behalf of the different style.

## It ranges from 02 to 07 totally 6 types, 09 type is the accessory.

02 typeIncluding 02010202020302040205 6 styles.Each style the top and bottom with clousure panel size. 03 typeIncluding 0310 and 0325 two styles,all are cover, bottom and open box set up structure. 04 typeOnly 0402 styleprocessing and folding with a cardbaord without any stamples and glue. 09 typeAccessories, including partition, pad etc., totally 45 types, they are used for dividing, fixing,location and cushioning.

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Corrugated box

## 6.3 Folding carton

The carton box is compact and save the paperboard the most.

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Corrugated box

## 6.5 FEFCO box template

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Corrugated box

## 6.6 FEFCO box template

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Corrugated box

## 6.7 Corrugated box design

1 Corrugated box design should firstly consider the relationship between the strength of the corrugated paperboard and the contents.

## The basic framework for the transport packaging

First classUsed for export product or expensive product transportation packaging; Second calss d o m e s t i c g o o d s t r a n s p o r t packaging; Third classCheap goods or short-distance transport packaging.

2The ergonomics principle must take into account in the carton structure design. The unreasonable box size design might cause fatigue and injury.
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Corrugated box

## 6.8 Various carton icons

The icons should be put in the specified location to facilitate all the work in the whole transportation process.

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7. Paper bag

The paper bag is the bag container with one end or two end sealing, generally made by kraft paper, coated paper, aluminized paper etc. The most common paper bag is the bag with flat bottom, it can be placed vertically and can be folded into a flat shape. The paper bag used for scattered goods packaging, also used for outer packaging, it has the direct effect on sales promotion.

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Paper bag

## 7.1 Paper bag structure

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Paper bag

## 7.2.1 Sealing end bag

After the sealing end bag filling with goods, the opening sealing

## with adhesive or U nail.This bag

mainly used for packing granular product.

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Paper bag

## The bottom and the top of

the bag sealing, there's a valve on the top bag corner, it usually used for

## small particles product

packaging.

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Paper bag

## method, its structure

similar to the sealing end bag.

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Paper bag

## 7.2.4 Glued valve bag

The bottom and the top of the bag with glued sealing, the valve used for filling.

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Paper bag

## 7.2.5 Flat bottom open bag

The the material on bottom end glued layer by layer, after filling the bag top sealed with glue.

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Paper bag

7.2.6 Handle bag The paper bag used more and more frequently in the real life, especially the market competition is becoming increasingly intensified, the paper bag as

## advertising tool with rich and varied forms.

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8. Cushioning packaging

It is estimated that billions of dollars lost on the packaging products destructive test, not to mention the lost because of the unreasonable cushioning packaging. At the same time the unreasonable design and large amount waste of resources phenomenon widely exists.

So the cushioning packaging is a very important topic, and at present lack of theoretical research and professional talent.

Subsequent versions of this document will go into the details of this chapter.

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Many people may not realize transportation belongs to packaging category, as the example of cushioning packaging we mentioned before, a little change may bring a few percentage points even ten percent change on the container utilization.

Subsequent versions of this document will go into the details of this chapter.

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10 Carbon footprint

Subsequent versions of this document will go into the details of this chapter.

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Information Update

We will update the file irregularly and more valuble information will be updated in the future, please keep an eye on our twitter. http://www.twitter.com/packmage