Você está na página 1de 27

1

Classification of Engineering Services

2.1 GENERAL

The needs for professional civil engineering services vary, and the civil engineering firms that meet these needs vary in organizational structure, size, and capability. Many civil engineering firms provide comprehensive services to the client, while other firms provide comprehensive services to the client, while other firms specialize in areas of engineering, such as geotechnical or structural, and transportation, water and construction management, and provide their services to a prime engineer, architect, or owner.

3
Services provided by Civil Engineers can be grouped into following broad categories:

Consultation, research, investigation, and reports. Design services for construction projects Construction services Special services for construction projects Engineering support services Academic services Services as Employee

4
The types of infrastructure under the domain of civil engineering, pursuant to RA 544, as amended, include:

Street, bridges, highways and railroads Airports and hangars Portworks, canals, river and shore improvements, light houses and dry docks Buildings Fixed structures for irrigation, flood protection, drainage, water supply and sewerage works Tunnels

2.2 CONSULTATIONS, RESEARCH, INVESTIGATION AND REPORTS

These services deal primarily with collecting, interpreting, and reporting information, together with formulating conclusions and making recommendations. Typical services in this category are:

2.2.1 Preliminary and Feasibility Investigations and Reports

These services usually precede the authorization of a capital project and may involve extensive investigations, analyses of conditions, and comparison of several possible plans. These studies may include the impact of a project upon the cycle costs, financing considerations, and expected revenues as bases for conclusions and recommendations regarding the advisability of undertaking a project.

2.2.2 Planning Studies

These services may include the broad areas of developing the engineering requirements of master plans for long-range capital improvement programs; preparation of preliminary engineering of land development plans, urban plans, and regional plans; and environmental conditions and preparation of environmental impact studies with subsequent engineering planning to improve or maintain existing conditions.

2.2.3 Appraisals, Valuation and Rate Studies

These services may include investigations and analyses of existing conditions; capital and operating costs; overhead costs and costs of financing; and revenues as needed to evaluate a property or to recommend establishment of prospective rates.

2.2.4 Assistance in Financial Matters

The Civil Engineer may be engaged by a client who is planning to issue bonds, particularly revenue bonds, to finance a capital project. The scope of services may include an evaluation of capabilities of existing or proposed facilities to meet present and projected future needs, statements of probable construction costs, and an estimate of annual revenue requirements, with a determination of appropriate rates to provide this income.

2.2.5 Materials Engineering and Equipment Tests

10

These services include tests of materials and equipment under established codes and standards, specialized examination of equipment and materials used in construction and industry, and other inspections and monitoring required by a client.

2.2.6 Direct Personal Services

11

This includes services such as assistance in preparation for legal proceedings. Appearances before courts or commissions to render expert opinions and conclusions, and investigation of technical matters where specialized civil engineering knowledge, experience, and judgment is required.

2.2.7 Research and Development

12

Research is a specialized investigation and gathering of data from existing resources or through laboratory works and processes related to the purpose and object of the research. Research and development may cover the following: Development of new construction materials and methods from concept to commercialization. Improvement of construction materials and methods through exhaustive studies to reduce total construction cost and at the same time improve quality.

2.2.8 Special Services

13

These services can vary to suit special needs of the client and can include such diverse activities as:
Value engineering Appraisal and valuation Load testing Environmental evaluations Traffic engineering Forensic engineering for structural and other failures Operational assistance Materials process design Pilot studies

Computer modeling
Safety engineering Topographic, sounding and boundary survey engineering Toxic and hazardous waste evaluation Permit and application services Sales and marketing services Expert witness Representation of municipal or private entities in project proposed for privatization

2.3 DESIGN SERVICES FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

14

Civil engineering services are required for each of six typical phases of a construction project. All services are preferably furnished by the same Civil Engineer for consistency and efficiency, although at times services in various phases are furnished by different engineers or by the client. The services are supplemented by special services which may be provided by the client, a specialized engineer, or another Civil Engineer.

2.3 .1 Study and Report Phase

15

This phase involves determination of project scope and economic and technical evaluation of feasible alternatives. The services performed during this phase may include:

Reviewing available data and consulting with the client to clarify and define the clients requirements for the project. Advising the client as to the necessity of providing or obtaining from others additional data or services and assisting the client in obtaining such data and services Identifying and analyzing requirements of governmental authorities having jurisdiction to approve the design of the project and participating in consultations with such authorities. Providing analyses of the clients needs, planning surveys, comparative evaluations of prospective sites and solutions. Providing a general economic analysis of the clients requirements applicable to various alternatives. Preparing a report and presenting alternative solutions available to the client with the Civil Engineers findings and recommendations.

2.3.2 Preliminary Design Phase

16

This phase involves the establishment of the general size and scope of the project and its location on the selected site. The preliminary design services may include:

Consulting with the client, reviewing preliminary reports, clarifying and defining project requirements, reviewing available data, and discussing general scheduling. Advising the client as to whether additional data or services of the type described under the study and report phase above are required and assisting the client in obtaining such data and services. Preparing preliminary design documents consisting of final design criteria, preliminary drawings, outline specifications, and written descriptions of the project. Preparing revised estimates of probable total project costs. Providing periodic status reports.

2.3.3 Final Design Phase

17

This phase of project development is usually undertaken only after the client has approved the preliminary design phase material. The basic services for the final design phase may include:

Preparing construction drawings and specifications showing the character and extent of the project based on the final accepted preliminary design documents.

Preparing and furnishing to the client a revised estimate of probable total project costs based on the final drawings and specifications.
Furnishing the necessary engineering data and assisting in the application for regulatory permits from local, or national authorities. This is distinguished from and does not include detailed applications and supporting documents for government grants-in-aid or planning grants that would be furnished as additional services described later this section. Preparing basic documents related to construction contacts for review and approval by the client (and the clients legal and other advisors). These include contact agreement forms, general conditions and supplementary conditions, invitations to bid, instructions to bidders, insurance and bonding requirements, and other contract-related documents. Furnishing to the client specified number of copies of drawings, specifications and other contract documents. Providing final design and construction services for design-build contracts. The engineer generally serves as a subcontractor to a general contractor during the initial planning and design phases. Services provided by the engineer may extended through the construction phase, as appropriate. Providing periodic status reports.

2.3.4 Bidding or Negotiating Phase

18

Services under this phase may include:

Assisting the client in advertising for and obtaining bids or negotiating proposals for each separate prime construction contract, maintaining a record of prospective bidders to whom bidding documents have been issued, attending pre-bid conferences, and receiving and processing deposits for bidding documents. Issuing addenda as appropriate to interpret, clarify, expand or amend the bidding documents. Assisting the client in determining the qualifications and acceptability of prospective contractors, subcontractors and materials suppliers. Consulting with and advising the client as to the acceptability of alternative materials and equipment proposed by the prospective construction when substitution prior t the award of contracts is allowed by the bidding documents. Attending the bid opening, preparing bid tabulation sheets and providing assistance to the client in evaluating bids or proposals and in assembling and awarding contracts for construction, materials, equipment and services.

2.3.5 Construction Phase

19

Construction phase services may include:

Reviewing, for compliance with design concepts, shop and erection drawings submitted by the constructors. Reviewing laboratory, shop, and mill test reports on materials and equipment. Visiting the project site at appropriate intervals Providing services during construction by a full-time resident project representative, and by supporting staff as required Issuing instruction from the client to the contractors, issuing necessary interpretations and clarifications of contract documents, preparing change orders, requiring special inspections and testing of the work, and making recommendations as to acceptability of the work. Making recommendations to the client on corrective actions or contractual measures that may be exercised by the owner. Preparing sketches required to resolve problems due to actual field conditions encountered. Determining amounts of progress payments due, based on degree of completion of the work, and recommending issuance of such payments by the client. Observing and assisting performance tests and initial operation of the project. Preparing record drawings from information submitted by the contractor. Making a final inspection and reporting on completion of the project

2.3.6 Operation Phase

20

At the completion of construction, the Civil Engineer may as basic service, assist in the star-up of project operations. The Civil Engineer may be commissioned to prepare a manual for both operation and maintenance requirements, and may also provide assistance in adjusting and balancing equipment, identifying deficiencies and assisting in obtaining corrections, and performing inspection prior to the end of the project warranty period. The Civil Engineer may assist in operator training, setting up job classifications and salaries, organizing the purchases of supplies developing charts for recording operational date, and observing and reporting on project operations.

2.4 Construction Services

21

A registered Civil Engineer may engage in construction contracting after being licensed as a contractor by the Contractors Accreditation Board. It is considered unethical for a civil engineer to allow his license to be used by any other construction company except his own. A registered Civil Engineer may provide the services of a supporting technical employee as required of a construction company. He shall however, be paid the professional fees, in addition to his regular salary, for any design work he performs for which he signs as professional Civil Engineer and/or engineer on record. A Civil Engineer may be employed as a construction engineer, resident Civil Engineer, project engineer, quality control engineer, cost engineer or engineer inspector in a project. In accordance with Section 23 of RA 544, only registered Civil Engineers can take charge or supervise construction or alteration of any building or structure and any other civil engineering works mentioned in Section 2 of the mentioned Republic Act. The Civil Engineer when employed is similarly required to comply with the code of ethics of the profession as the consulting. Civil Engineer.

2.5 Special Services For Construction Projects


22

Special services required during the study, design, construction, and operation phases of a construction project may include investigations, reports, and activities beyond the scope of the basic services. Special services that may be provided by the Civil Engineer or negotiated with other firms or sub-consultants by the Civil Engineer acting on behalf of the client could include: Geotechnical engineering including test borings, sampling and analysis, and recommendations. Special studies, tests, and process determinations to establish design criteria or demonstrate compliance. Land surveys, establishment of boundaries and monuments, preparation of easement descriptions, and related computations and drawings. Engineering and topographic surveys for design and construction. Mill, shop, or laboratory inspections of the materials and equipment. Additional copies of reports, construction drawings, specifications, and other documents as required for bidding and construction beyond the number specified in the Basic Services agreement. Extra travel and subsistence as defined by the agreement for engineering services. Value engineering

Redesign to reflect changes requested by the client or necessitated by the clients acceptance of substitutions proposed by the contractor.

..

23
Assistance to the client as an expert witness in litigation in connection with the project or in hearings before approving and regulatory agencies. Final investigations involving detailed consideration of operation, maintenance, and overhead expenses; preparation of final rate schedules, and earning and expense statements; appraisal, valuations, and material audits or inventories required for certification of force account construction performed by the client or for extra work done by the contractor.

Preparation of detailed applications and supporting documents grants or advances for public works projects.
Plotting, computing, and filing of subdivision plans, staking of lots, and other land planning and partitioning activities. Preparation of environmental assessment and impact statements and other assistance to the client in connection with public hearings. Additional studies and design efforts to meet special conditions encountered during construction.

Assistance to the client in the selection and engagement of architects, other engineers, contractors and subcontractors, and observation and approval of their services or work; contacts with governmental agencies to obtain permits and documents; and other services related to project development.
Assessment of a completed projects ability to meet its design intent relative to capacity, maintainability, operability, or reliability. Computer simulation and modeling.

2.6 Engineering Support Services

24

The engineering support services in general civil engineering practice may involve drafting, land and construction surveying, and the other data gathering activities for specialized purposes. Although persons who are not Civil Engineers sometimes accomplish some of these tasks, the procurement of adequate and correct date usually requires professional Civil Engineering judgment and guidance. Since soundness of any engineering decision is dependent upon the accuracy and suitability of data obtained in field and laboratory investigations these supporting services must be under the guidance of the Civil Engineer whose decisions will be based upon those data.

2.7 Academic Services


25

These services involve full or part time teaching or training of prospective professionals and also the upgrading of knowledge and skills of fellows professionals. Academic services may include: Teaching of civil engineering courses in engineering colleges/universities on part/full time basis. As per RA 8981, all subjects for licensure examinations shall be taught by persons who are holders of valid certificates of registration/professional licenses and professional identification cards, or special temporary permits, or a valid certificate of competency for the profession issued by the Commission, and who comply with the other requirements of the CHED. Lecturing in Civil Engineering courses designed by the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers for practicing engineers who want to obtain CPD credits.

Conducting tutorials/refresher courses on civil engineering concepts and related subjects.


Serving as a Resources Speaker in Technical Session. Writing technical articles and pamphlets.

2.8 Services as Employee


26

This is a condition when a Civil Engineer engages to perform work or fulfill duties regularly for wages or salary being paid by an employer. A Civil Engineer may be employed for any position or function in any commercial or institutional organization. Where he is performing civil engineering functions, he is required to follow the code of ethics for Civil Engineers and comply with the standards and guidelines of this manual. A licensed Civil Engineer may not allow his licensed to be used by the company that employs him without the proper agreement for his professional services. Where the firm he is working for uses his license to sign and seal the plans, specifications and contract document, the Civil Engineer much charge the professional fee for said services. A Civil Engineer in part time employment with a firm is considered to be an employee and at the same time a consultant of the firm. The standards for an employee and an individual consultant as defined in this manual apply to this Civil Engineer. Any Civil Engineer employed as an individual consultant of any firm, whether the firm is performing engineering, commercial, administrative, management or financial services is required to comply with the requirements and the standards herein established for a consulting Civil Engineering firm or consulting Civil Engineer. All Government Civil Engineers employed by the instrumentalities of the Government e.g. national and local, shall be governed by pertinent existing laws and regularities and particularly to those prescribed by the Civil Service Commission. In case of any conflict with any of the provisions of this Manual of Practice, such pertinent laws and regulations shall take precedence and shall govern.

Quiz

27

1. These services may include the broad areas of developing the engineering requirements of master plans for long-range capital improvement programs. 2. The scope of services may include an evaluation of capabilities of existing or proposed facilities to meet present and projected future needs. 3.This includes services such as assistance in preparation for legal proceedings 4. It is a specialized investigation and gathering of data from existing resources or through laboratory works and processes.

5. This phase involves determination of project scope and economic and technical evaluation of feasible alternatives.
6. This phase includes service in assisting the client in advertising for and obtaining bids or negotiating proposals for each separate prime construction contract. 7. Phase that involves Reviewing, for compliance with design concepts, shop and erection drawings submitted by the constructors. 8. In general civil engineering practice may involve drafting, land and construction surveying, and the other data gathering activities for specialized purposes. 9. These services involve full or part time teaching or training of prospective professionals and also the upgrading of knowledge and skills of fellows professionals. 10. This is a condition when a Civil Engineer engages to perform work or fulfill duties regularly for wages or salary being paid by an employer