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Customer Expectations

Standards Certifications Inspections Packaging Others

Standards

Identify applicable product standards Identify applicable test standards Understand and implement

Certifications
Quality Management System (ISO 9001:2008) Environmental Management System (ISO 14001:2004) OHSAS 18001:2000 CE Mark

Inspections
Second party inspection Third party inspection Self inspection

Packaging
Proper packaging material Export worthy packaging Usage of symbols Counter presence Packaging cost

Others
Cleanliness Finish Compliance Timiliness Variation

Methods
Benchmarking Reliability Studies FMEA QFD Six Sigma

Six Sigma

What is Six Sigma?


1.

2.

3.

Philosophy: We should work smarter, not harder. Business strategy: We gain a competitive edges in Quality, Cost, Customer Satisfaction. Statistical measurement: We measure defect rates in all processes through an expanding statistical concept.

What is Six Sigma?


Sigma is a statistical measure of variation from the average For a manufacturing process, the sigma value is a metric that indicate how well that process is performing. The value of 1 sigma is one standard deviation from the mean.

Six Sigma Approach


Combines some of the best technique of the past with recent breakthroughs in management thinking and plain old common sense. The term Six Sigma is a reference to a particular goal of reducing defects to near zero.

Benefits:
The goal of Six Sigma is to increase profits by eliminating variability, defects and waste that undermine customer loyalty.

Goals of Six Sigma


To achieve Zero Defect (3.4 PPM) in all outputs of the company through:
a)

b)

c)

Measurement of defects in six sigma scale Process re-design to improve capability Involvement of all Employees

Six Sigma Belts:


Black Belt: Someone who either coaches or actually leads a Six Sigma team. Master Black Belt: A person who coaches a large number of Six Sigma teams. Green Belt: Employees who have received basic Six Sigma training.

Calculating Sigma
Step 1: Calculating Defects per Unit (DPU) DPU = Total number of defects Total number of units

Calculating Sigma
Step 2: Calculating Defects Per Million Opportunities for error (DPMO) DPMO = DPU X 1,000,000 No. of opp. for error

Calculating Sigma
Step 3: Correlate the DPMO to the chart showing correlation between defects per million opportunities and sigma levels.

Sigma and its DPMO


SIGMA CONVERSION CHART
Sigma () value Defects per million opportunities

(+/-) 2
(+/-) 3

308, 537.0
66, 810.0

(+/-) 3.5
(+/-) 4 (+/-) 4.5 (+/-) 5 (+/-) 5.5 (+/-) 6

22, 750.0
6, 210.0 1,350.0 233.0 32.0 3.4

LCL

UCL

-6

-3

+3

+6

Tolerance
LSL
USL

Case Example
STEP ACTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How many units were put through the Process? How many came out error free? Compute the yield of the process. Compute the defect rate. Compute the number of potential things that could create a defect.

EQUATION CALCUL.
--step 2/ step 1 1 step 3 N number of CTQs (Critical To Quality parameters) 1283 1138 0.8870 0.113 24

Case Example
STEP ACTION
6. 7. 8. Calculate the defect rate per CTQ characteristics Compute the defects per million opportunities Convert the DPMO into sigma value using the sigma conversion chart Draw conclusions

EQUATION CALCUL.
Step 4/ step 5 Step 6 X 1,00,000 -0.0047 4709 4.1 sigma

9.

Slightly above average performance

Six Sigma Tools:


There are two six sigma methodologies:
DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) DMADV (define, measure, analyze, design, verify)

Six Sigma Tools:


For existing processes D Define M Measure A Analyze I Improve C Control

Six Sigma Tools:


For new processes D Define M Measure A Analyze D Design V Verify

The Journey
Six Sigma aims at continual improvement through the journey starting from the existing sigma level, gradually moving towards six sigma level and beyond.