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ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Section 1-10

PRINCIPLES
MGA SIMULAIN

Section 1

The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.

Filipino Translation: Ang Pilipinas ay isang Estadong republikano at demokratiko. Ang ganap na kapangyarihan ay angkin ng sambayanan at nagmumula sa kanila ang lahat ng mga awtoridad na pampamahalaan.

Section 2

The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.

Filipino Translation: Itinatakwil ng Pilipinas ang digmaan bilang kasangkapan ng patakarang pambansa, tinatanggap bilang bahagi ng batas ng bansa ang mga simulain ng batas internasyonal nakinikilala ng lahat at umaayon sa patakaran ng kapayapaan, pagkakapantay-pantay, katarungan, kalayaan, pakikipagtulungan, at pakikipagkaibigan sa lahat ng mga bansa.

Section 3

Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.

Filipino Translation: Ang awtoridad na sibilyan ay sumasaibabaw ng sa militar sa lahat ng panahon. Ang Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas ay tagapangalaga ng Sambayanan at ng Estado. Ang layunin nito ay seguruhin ang ganap na kapangyarihan ng Estado at ang integridad ng pambansang teritoryo.

Section 4

The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfilment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal, military or civil service.

Filipino Translation: Ang pangunahing tungkulin ng pamahalaan ay paglingkuran at pangalagaan ang sambayanan. Maaaring tawagan ng pamahalaan ang sambayanan upang ipagtanggol ang Estado, at sa ikatutupad niyon, ang lahat ng mga mamamayan ay maaaring atasang maghandog ng personal na serbisyo militar o sibil, sa ilalim ng kondisyong

Section 5

The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy.

Filipino Translation: Dapat sundin ng Estado ang pagpapanatili ng kapayapaan at kaayusan, ang pangangalaga ng buhay, kalayaan at ariarian, at ang pagtataguyod sa kagalingang panlahat upang matamasa ang buong sambayanan ang mga biyaya ang demokrasya.

Section 6

The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

Filipino Translation: Hindi dapat labagin ang pagkakahiwalay ng Simbahan at ng Estado.

STATE POLICIES
MGA PATAKARAN NG ESTADO

Section 7

The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination.

Filipino Translation: Dapat sundin ng Estado ang isang malayang patakarang panlabas. Sa mga pakikipag-ugnay nito sa ibang mga estado, dapat unang-unang isaalangalang ang ganap na kapangyarihang pambansa, intergridad na teritoryal, kapakanang pambansa, at ang karapatan sa sariling pagpapasya.

Section 8

The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.

Filipino Translation: Tinatanggap at sinusunod ng Pilipinas, nang naaalinsunod sa kapakanang pambansa, ang patakarang malaya laban sa pagkakaroon ng sandatang nukleyar sa teritoryo nito.

Section 9

The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.

Filipino Translation: Dapat itaguyod ng Estado ang makatwiran at dinamikong kaayusang panlipunan na titiyak sa kasaganaan at kasarinlan ng bansa at magpapalaya sa sambayanan laban sa kahirapan sa pamamagitan ng mga patakarang nagtatakda ng sapat na mga lingkurang panlipunan, nagtataguyod ng pagkakataon na magkahanapbuhay ang lahat, umaangat ng istandard ng pamumuhay at ng lalong mainam na uri ng buhay para sa lahat.

Section 10

The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.

Filipino Translation: Dapat itaguyod ng Estado ang katarungang panlipunan sa lahat ng mga yugto ng pambansang pagpapaunlad.

ISSUES

FACTS
170 women who lived in the segregated district for women of ill repute in Manila, were by orders of Mayor Lukban and the chief of police isolated from society, and without their consent and opportunity to defend their rights were forcibly hustled on board vessels for deportation to Mindanao. Such orders were given for the best of all reasons, to exterminate vice Deportees petitioned for habeas corpus and contended that they were illegally restrained of their liberty.

ISSUE
Does Mayor Lukban who is acting in good faith have the right to deport said women of ill-repute against their privilege of domicile in restraint of their liberties?

FACTS
Lagman and Zoso are charged in violation of the National Defense Law which establishes compulsory military service. Both refused to register to military service. Lagman avers he has a father to support, he has no military leanings, and does not wish to kill or be killed. Zosa reasons he is fatherless and has a mother and an 8 yearold brother to support. Petitioners question the constitutionality of said law.

ISSUE

Is the National constitutional?

Defense

Law

FACTS
Director of Posts Ruiz issued and sold postage stamps commemorative of the 33rd International Eucharistic Congress. Such act was undertaken pursuant to Act. No. 4052, which summarily, authorized the Director of Posts to dispose of the amount appropriated for the cost of plates and printing of postage stamps with new designs as may be deemed advantageous to the government. Mons. Aglipay, Supreme Head of the Philippine Independent Church, petitions a writ of inhibition to prevent Dir. Ruiz from issuing and selling the commemorative postage stamps, averring that it violates the Constitution which provides that No public money shall ever be appropriated for the

ISSUE
Is the issuance and selling of the commemorative postage stamps contrary to the foregoing constitutional provision?

FACTS
Farrales is the owner of a parcel of residential land in Olongapo City. Prior to the acquisition of the land, Salonga was already in possession as lessee of a part of the land, on which she had erected a house. Due to non-payment of rentals, Farrales sold to the other lessees the parcels of land on which they respectively occupy so that when the decision was affirmed and executed on appeal, the ejectment case was then only against Salonga. Salonga persistently offered to purchase the subject land from Farrales but the latter consistently refused. Salonga filed an action for specific performance of praying that Farrales be compelled to sell to him, but it was dismiss. In this appeal, Article II, Sec 10 of the Constitution on social justice was invoked.

ISSUE

Is the constitutional provision on social justice applicable in this case?

Prepared by:
Pearubia, Katherine Quines, Anna Dominique Remulla, Ma. Wendy Sandhu, Chadni