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INTRODUCTION

TYPES

OF MUSHROOM MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN INDIA MATERIAL USED METHOD CONDITION TO BE MAINTAINED RESULTS PHOTOGALLERY REFERENCES

Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of Macro fungi.

Derived from the French word mousseron.


Played important role in ancient history. In 1945, the British Mushroom Growers Association

(MGA) was born.

Britain is the fourth largest producer being surpassed only by the USA, France and Taiwan. In Latin it means to flourish and in Greek sponge. Mushrooms belong to Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina.

Mushrooms includes Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms. The word mushroom was used for the edible members of macrofungi and toadstools for poisonous ones of the gill macrofungi. Examples of Edible mushrooms

Agaricus bisporus (White button mushroom) Volvariella spp. (Paddy straw mushroom) Pleurotus spp. (Oyster mushroom) Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) Boletus edulis (Porcini mushroom)

Poisonous MushroomsCortinarius rubellus Amanita muscaria, Amanita virosa, Amanita phalloides Tricholoma pardinum, Tricholoma tigrinum

Oyster Mushrooms

Button Mushrooms

Morchella Mushrooms (genus Morel)

Portobello Mushrooms

Shiitake Mushrooms

Puffballs Mushrooms

Wild Mushrooms

Porcini Mushrooms

These

are grown in various agri-wastes and compost. The most commonly cultivated mushrooms in India are 1. White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporous) 2. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sojar-caju) 3. Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea).

Wheat Straw Wheat Straw + Calcium Carbonate Wheat Straw + Wheat Bran + Calcium Carbonate Sugarcane Bagasses Sunflower Stalks Rice straw

SPAWN

SELECTION SPAWN CULTURE MAINTAINENCE PREPARATION OF SUBSTRATE SPAWN INOCULATION SPAWN RUN FRUITING/CROPPING HARVESTING

Oyster

mushrooms are grown from mycelium(threadlike filaments that become interwoven)propagated on a base of steam-sterilized cereal grain (usually rye or millet). This cereal grain/mycelium mixture is called spawn and is used to seed mushroom substrate. Inoculum for spawn production is produced in polyethylene bags containing a microporous breather strip for gas exchange. We have used the Grain Spawn.

GRAIN SPAWN

SAWDUST SPAWN

PLUG SPAWN

LIQUID SPAWN

Before

1970, cultivars used for commercial spawn production were maintained on various agars or cereal grains with periodic subculturing of growing mycelium to a fresh medium. In 1970, researchers successfully preserved and maintained stability of spawn stocks stored in liquid nitrogen. Cryogenic preservation is used to ensure use of superior spawn-starter cultures. Many vials containing spawn from cultures of promising spawn lines are stored in liquid nitrogen.

Plastic

bags are need to prepare the substrate. A cemented floor is the preferred underground for mixing and moistening the sawdust (or straw). Steam source or heating equipment like an bucket. Raw substrate materials, like sawdust, rice bran, wheat straw, sunflower stalks,sugarcane bagasses etc. Depending on the type of bags/bottles: additional plugs and plastic rings and/or rubber bands

Fill

small substrate plastic bags with the substrate before sterilising.

During

spawn run stage the mycelium will grow through the substrate. Once the bags are spawned they should be placed on shelves in the incubation rooms. When the pinheads have grown to a size of 1 cm, the humidity should be lowered to 85% by passing fresh air through the room.

Open

the bags as soon as the mycelium has covered the substrate completely. Remove the cotton plugs and cut away the plastic top of the bag (partially). It takes three to four days after opening the bags before the mushrooms will form.

The

mushrooms are ready for harvesting in five days (if the temperature is between 15 and 20 C) or two to three days (at higher temperatures). It will take another five to nine days for the second flush. Harvesting is performed by gently pulling or twisting the mushrooms from the substrate.

TEMPERATURE
Mushroom mycelia grow well with the temperature range between 20 C and 30C and Pins form at 10-20C

MOISTURE CONTENT
Substrate moisture content should be 60-75%
Log moisture content should be 35-45% During fruiting, relative humidity levels ranges from 80-95%

CO2 CONCENTRATION LIGHT

WHEAT STRAW JAN TEMP (C) SPAWN RUN PIN HEAD STIPE LENGTH CAP DIA. 10-16 8 13 1.4 4.2 FEB

SUGARCANE BAGASSES MARCH JAN 10-16 11 15 1.4 4 FEB 17-31 12 20 1.4 4.1

SUNFLOWER STAKS FEB 17-31 9 13 1.4 4.2 MARCH 30-36 11 21 1.5 4.2

MARCH JAN 30-36 14 22 1.5 4.1 10-16 13 24 1.2 3

17-31 30-36 9 17 1.4 4.2 10 20 1.4 4

Book references:

Mushroom Growers handbook 1

Internet references:

http://www.world-offungi.org/Mostly_Medical/Stephanie_Ingram/NUTRITIONAL_VALUE.htm http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/benefits-of-mushrooms-1337.html http://icargoa.res.in/mushroom_spawn.htm http://www.howtogrowmushrooms.org/ http://www.krishiworld.com/html/mushroom.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-edible-mushrooms.html http://www.mykoweb.com/articles/cultivation.html

Research papers:

Martnez-Carrera, D., A. Aguilar, W. Martnez, M. Bonilla, P. Morales & M. Sobal, 2000. Commercial production and marketing of edible mushrooms cultivated on coffee pulp in Mexico.

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