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# POPULATION ECOLOGY

TOPICS

## Limiting Factors Affecting the Population Size

The closer population size gets to the Carrying Capacity, the greater will be the environment resistance. (environmental resistance)

PREVIOUS LESSON
Carrying Capacity Carrying capacity

Number of Individuals

(biotic potential)

## Equilibrium Exponential Growth

Time

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic, students should be able to;

Explain population growth curves i. Exponential growth curve (human) ii. Logistic growth curve (Paramecium)

Explain the limiting factors affecting the population size i. Density-dependent factors ii. Density independent factors

## Population growth curve

EXPONENTIAL CURVE

## Patterns of population growth

Exponential Curve

## Exponential Growth Curve

- Exponential growth refers to

unlimited growth of a population - Occurs when environmental conditions are not limiting - Reproduce at maximum biotic potential - Cause a large population growth

## Eg: human population growth

Shows how the increase of individuals added each generation - Very productive agriculture.

Raised the K for humans - Inherited a high birth rate from ancestors

## Logistic Growth Curve

S- shaped curve - Is a result of environmental resistance - Which increases in intensity as the population density increases - Until it reaches a steady level Achieve its maximum carrying capacity e.g: Paramecium population

## Logistic Growth Curve

The growth (black dots) of Paramecium aurelia in a small culture closely approximates logistic growth (red curve) if the researcher maintains a constant environment.
(Campbell, 9th edition, page 1225)

## Limiting Factors Affecting the Population Size

Density-dependent

Density-independent

Biotic Factors

Abiotic Factors

Density-dependent Factors

Predator-prey

Competition

Territorial Behavior

Parasitism

Predator-prey
Higher density of prey populations attract more predators Number of prey increase, so does the number of predators

Competition

## When the number of individuals in a population increase.

Compete for food, water and shelter Weaker species will eliminated

Territorial Behavior

## - To protect their resource and territory

Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) use a chemical marker in urine to warn other cheetahs of their territorial boundaries. Australian gannets (Morus serrator) defend their territories when nesting by calling and pacing at one another.
(Campbell, 9th edition, page 1225)

Parasitism
Spread easier in a high-density population

Density-independent Factors

Climate

Natural disaster

Pesticides

Climate

Natural Disaster

Pesticides
Pesticides are used to control agricultural pests but also run into freshwater streams and ponds where many animal populations live and breed

QUESTION 1
Explain how the following density dependent limiting factors affect the population size. - Competition - Territorial behavior - Predation

NEXT LECTURE

14.0 Biocatalysis