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EXPERIMENTS

Cycle I
Comparative configuration study of different types of airplanes.

Comparative study on specification and performance details of aircraft.


Preparation of comparative data sheets. Work sheet layout procedures. Comparative graphs preparation and selection of main parameters for

the design.

Cycle II
Preliminary weight estimations, selection of main parameters. Power plant selection, Aerofoil selection, Wing tail and control surfaces

design. Estimation of various Drags. Detailed performance calculations and stability estimates. Preparation of layouts of balance diagram and three view drawings.

PHASE
The main phases to be followed in design method.
Preliminary phases (conceptual design stage) Project design Detailed design Manufacturing Testing

Preliminary phases
Detailed analysis of the Aerodynamic loads & component Weights. Summary of the technical and geometric details about the baseline

design. Aircraft Type Specication - Initial draft of a document & thorough description of the aircraft
Project design
Detailed analysis to improve the technical condence in the design.
Wind tunnel tests & CFD analysis are used to rene the aerodynamic

shape of the aircraft. Finite element analysis is used to understand the structural integrity. Stability and control analysis and simulations will be used to appreciate the ying characteristics. Mass and balance estimations will be performed in increasingly ne detail.

DEFINING A NEW DESIGN


Preliminary design - Aerodynamic loads & component weights. Structural design Aero elastic motion Fatigue & flutter Aircraft Purpose Payload Cruise and Maximum Speeds Normal Cruise Altitude Range Endurance Take-off Distance

PAYLOAD

LOAD CARRIED ON BOARD AND DELIVERED AS PART OF THE AIRCRAFTS MISSION. Standard payloads or Non-expendable payloads
Passengers Cargo or ordnance

Military ordnance or Expendable payloads


Bombs Rockets Missiles and Ammunition for on-board guns.

For personal or small general aviation aircraft: pilot as well as passengers and baggage. For business, commuter and commercial aircraft: passengers, baggage and cargo (does not flight or cabin crew).

CRUISE AND MAXIMUM SPEEDS


The mission of an aircraft usually dictates its speed range.

Typical cruise Mach number


Propeller-driven aircraft lies between 150 to 300 knots. Business and Commercial jet aircraft is from 0.8 to 0.85. Concorde is 2.02.

Modern military jet combat and attack aircraft range from Mach 0.85 to 0.90.

The range of cruise speed is close to optimum for maximizing the

combination of payload weight, range and speed.


The few supersonic commercial aircraft designs

have supersonic cruise speed as their principle design driver and sacrifice range and payload.

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE
LENGTH OF A RUNWAY NEEDED TO ACCELERATE, LIFT OFF,

AND CLIMB TO PRESCRIBE OBSTACLE HEIGHT.


Obstacle height for
Military and small Civil aircraft is 50 feet,

Commercial aircraft is 35 feet.

The take-off distance depends on


thrust to weight ratio,

Maximum lift to weight ratio


Surface of the air field that affects the rolling friction of the landing-gear wheels.

NORMAL CRUISE ALTITUDE


Cruise altitude is generally dictated by cruise speed, propulsion system and

cabin pressurization. The decrease in air density with higher altitude lowers the drag, so that for these aircraft, the cruise range increases with altitude. An aircraft with an un-pressurized cabin would cruise no higher than 10,000 feet. Propeller-driven aircraft, turbo-charged piston engines can maintain a constant horsepower up to an altitude of approximately 20,000 feet. Turboprop aircraft, such as Piper Cheyenne, which have a maximum ceiling from 35,000 to 41,000 feet. At higher subsonic Mach numbers, the turbo-jet engine gives the higher efficiency can obtain an optimum altitude (app. 36,000 feet) where the fuel consumption is a minimum.

RANGE & ENDURANCE


Range:
THE

FURTHEST DISTANCE THE AIRCRAFT CAN FLY WITHOUT REFUELING. In a flight plan, range refers to the distance traveled during the cruise phase. Large effect on the aircraft take-off weight.
Endurance
THE AMOUNT OF TIME AN AIRCRAFT CAN FLY WITHOUT

REFUELING. For a commercial aircraft, a flight plan will include an endurance phase to allow for time that night is spent in a holding pattern prior to landing.

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
Literature survey Preliminary data acquisition Estimation of aircraft weight
Maximum take-off weight
Empty weight of the aircraft Weight of the fuel Fuel tank capacity

Estimation of critical performance parameters


Wing area Lift and drag coefficients Wing loading Power loading Thrust to weight ratio

Engine selection Performance curves 3-view diagram

UNIT CONVERSION
1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 foot = 0.305 meters

1 sq. ft = 0.0929 sq. m


1USgal = 3.785 liters 1USgal = 0.833 Imp. gal 1 statute mile = 1.609 km

1 cu. ft = 28.32 liters


1 Imp. gal = 4.546 liters 1 litre = 0.001 cubic meters 1 nautical mile = 1.852 km

1 ft/s = 0.305 m/s


1 knot = 1.69 ft/s 1poundforce=4.448 Newton 1 horsepower= 745.7 watts

1 knot = 0.516 m/s


1 knot = 1.151 mph 1 pound mass = 0.454 kilogram 1 horsepower = 550 ft lb/s

Mostly: *Aircraft altitude feet Aircraft *Aircraft range nautical miles

*forward speed knots *Climb rate feet per minute

Comparative configuration study of different types of airplanes.

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECIFICATION AND PERFORMANCE DETAILS OF AIRCRAFT


General characteristics:

Crew Length Height Wing area Wing span Aspect ratio Weight configuration: Empty Weight Take of weight Loaded weight Thrust to weight ratio

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Performance

Maximum speed Maximum altitude Range Rate of climb Wing loading

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Engine configurations:

Power plant (No. of engines, engines type, dry thrust& wet thrust) ---------

PREPARTAION OF COMPARATIVE DATA SHEETS


Exp no: 2. this data sheet will help to get the optimized vale for the design

of an aircraft. The tables are Dimensions. Weight configurations Performance Engine configurations Dimensions:
S.no Aircraft Length m Height m Wing area m2 Wing span m Aspect ratio No unit

Weight configuration:
S.no Aircraft Maximum speed m/s Maximum altitude Km Range Km Wing loading Kg/m2 Rate climb m/min of

Performance:
S.no Aircraft Empty Weight Kg Take of weight Kg Loaded weight Kg Thrust to weight ratio Kg

Engine configurations:
S.no Aircraft No. of Engines Types of Engines Maximum thrust KN

COMPARATIVE GRAPTH PREPARETIONS & SELECTION OF MAIN PARAMETERS FOR THE DESIGN
Altitude Vs Velocity Range Vs Velocity

Total weight Vs Velocity


Wing loading Vs Velocity Thrust to weight ratio Vs Velocity Aspect ratio Vs Velocity

SELECTION OF MAIN PARAMETERS:

S. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Main Parameters
Altitude Range Total weight Wing loading Thrust to weight ratio Aspect ratio Velocity

Optimum value

Powered aircraft
Propeller aircraft Jet aircraft

General construction
Airframe Fuselage Wing Control surfaces Horizontal and vertical stabilizers

Performance
Range

AREAS OF USE
Military aircraft
Combat aircraft Non-Combat aircraft

Civil aircraft
Commercial aircraft General aviation

Experimental aircraft

Areas of use
Military

Combat aircraft: Aircraft designed to destroy enemy equipment using its own armament. fighters bombers fighter-bombers ground-attack aircraft

Non-Combat aircraft: Carry weapons for self-defense. Non-combat roles include search and rescue reconnaissance observation transport Training aerial refueling

Civil

Commercial aircraft: carrying both passengers and cargo. Airliners - Larger passenger-carrying as well as wide-body aircraft. Some of the smaller types are also used in general aviation, and some of the larger types are used as VIP aircraft. General aviation: General aviation is a catch-all covering other kinds of private (where the pilot is not paid for time or expenses) and commercial use business jets (bizjets) trainers homebuilt aerobatic racers gliders war birds firefighters medical transports Cargo transports

Experimental: Experimental aircraft are one-off specials, built to explore some aspect of aircraft design and with no other useful purpose

Civil aircraft Business and utility transport supersonic business jet passenger airliner cargo aircraft Trainers Military aircraft Trainers Fighters Bombers Ground Attack Aircraft Naval and Marine Corps Aircraft Cargo

List of civil aircraft


Medium- to long-range wide body airliner Medium-range airliner Long-range large corporate Narrow Body Airliner
Short range Medium range Long range Short Medium range Medium large range

Wide Body Airliner Jet


Short range Medium range Long range Short Medium range Medium large range

Large capacity turboprop cargo aircraft 50-passenger short-range turboprop

airliner 75-passenger regional airliner trainer Trainer aircraft light aircraft Twin- engined mid-size business jet