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1: TOPOGRAPHY, GEOID AND ELLIPSOID SURFACE


Actual topographic surface: variety of landforms and water areas. -Surface on which actual Earth measurements are made Not suitable for mathematical computations because : The formulas would be required to take the irregularities into account

Major tasks of Geodesy : determination size and shape of the earth

Sphere : close approximation of the true figure of the earth & satisfactory for many purposes.

Figure of The Earth

Idea of flat earth : still acceptable for surveys of small areas (<10 km)

Small areas: position can be determined relative to each other without considering the size and shape of total Earth. 1

2.1: TOPOGRAPIC, GEODIC AND ELLIPSOIDAL SURFACES


A.TOPOGRAPHIC SURFACE Topography (from Greek topo-, "place", and graphia, "writing") is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those of planets, moons, and asteroids. The topographic surface is the actual surface of the earth, upon which geodetic measurements are made. These measurements are then reduced to the geoid. (eg: engineering survey, cadastral survey and mapping) The surface is not uniform and unstable. Covering all topography area of the land and under the sea .

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The changing features shape and inconsistencies make it difficult to stated accurately and for calculation.
For a small work area, the curvature factor is negligible but for a large work area the curvature factor must be considered in calculation and require global coordinate system (, ).

Actually, the physical topography approaching of the ellipsoid shape .. the estimated maximum seperation between the two surfaces does not exceed 8.5 km in the same direction + ve or-ve.
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B. GEODIC SURFACE

GEOID CONCEPT GEOID


Equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field;(approximat ely) coincides with MSL in the open ocean

could be considered corresponding to the global mean sea level

surface of the earth gravity field

During the geoid surface, potential ( W) are the same.

The geoid-ellipsoid separations are referred to as geoid undulation or geoid heights or geoid separations.

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In geodetic surveying, computation of geodetic coordinates of points is performed on an ellipsoid which closely approximates the size and shape of the earth in the area of survey. The actual measurement made on the surface of the earth with certain instruments are referred to the geoid.

Geoid forms a suitable reference surface for heights because it is based on the field gravity which governs fluid flow.

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C. ELLIPSOIDAL SURFACE Ellipsoidal Reference Systems:

Ellipsoid imagination surface that can be used as a basis of reference to describe geoid and the topography surface.
Ellipsoid Geometrical figure used in geodesy to most nearby approximate the shape of the earth is an ellipsoidal models. Ellipsoid - GPS heights are referenced to this mathematical surface.
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C. ELLIPSOIDAL SURFACE KONSEP Ellipsoid

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-Geodetic , mapping and charting purposes :


necessary to use a regular or geometric shape which approximates the shape of the geoid either on a local or global scale which has specific mathematical expression. This shape called the Ellipsoid .

Separations of Geoid and Ellipsoid are called : i) Geoidal Height ii) Geoidal Undulation iii) Geoidal Separations
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C. ELLIPSOIDAL SURFACE Ellipsoidal Reference Systems:

Reference ellipsoids are usually defined by semi-major (equatorial radius),a and flattening, f (the relationship between equatorial and polar radius) Flattening indicates how closely an ellipsoid approaches a spherical shape.
The difference between the ellipsoid of revolution representing the earth and a sphere is very small. The size is represented by radius at the equator, the semi-major axis and designated by letter, a. The shape of the ellipsoid is given by the flattening,f which indicates how closely an ellipsoid approaches a spherical shape.
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ELLIPSOIDAL HEIGHT AND GEODE SEPARATION

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Ketinggian yang merujuk kepada geoid bagi titik P di atas permukaan topografi dikenali sebagai ketinggian ortometrik, H atau ketinggian Aras Purata Laut (MSL). Ketinggian ini diukur sepanjang garis pugak antara topografi & geoid melalui ukur aras.
Sementara ketinggian yang merujuk kepada permukaan elipsoid dikenali sebagai ketinggian elipsoid, h. Ketinggian ini diukur sepanjang garis normal pada ellipsoid daripada cerapan geodesi satelit.
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Jarak pemisahan di antara permukaan elipsoid dan geoid pula dikenali sebagai ketinggian geoid, N. Ketinggian Geoid ialah ketinggian di antara permukaan geoid & permukaan elipsoid diukur sepanjang garis normal elipsoid. Ketinggian ortometrik boleh diterbitkan dari ketinggian elipsoid dan ketinggian geoid dengan menggunakan rumus berikut: atau
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