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Dental Anatomy

Dr. S. S. Hiremath Asst. Prof. & I/c Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry Community Dentistry CODS. BPKIHS Dharan, Nepal.
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Dental Anatomy
Introduction Dental Formulae Types of Dentition Types of teeth Tooth Anatomy Eruption Exfoliation Applied aspects

Introduction

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Introduction

Humans evolved as omnivores, and our teeth reflect this history. We have relatively pathetic canine teeth compared to cats and even other primates such as baboons. Our premolars and molars and not nearly as efficient as those of ruminants or horses for grinding tough plant material. Nonetheless, our teeth generally serve us well for the kind of diet we consume.
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Introduction

Teeth are very important to an animal as they are used for eating, grooming and defense. Consequently, dental problems, if not treated, often lead to more generalized illness. Mammals have teeth of different sizes and shapes, a condition known as heterodonty, allowing different teeth to be specialized for different tasks. These specialized teeth include: Incisors (I) Canine teeth (C) Premolars (P) Molars (M)

Mammals also have two sets of teeth:


a deciduous set (milk teeth, baby teeth) and a permanent set.


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Introduction

The third molars of humans are also known as "wisdom teeth". These teeth typically emerge between 17 and 25 years of age, and often crowd other teeth such that they must be pulled. Some people don't have wisdom teeth, which spares them this trauma.
In human dental anatomy the canine teeth are refered to as the eyeteeth and the premolars as the bicuspids.
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Dental Formulae

Dental formulae are used to indicate the number of each type of tooth for a given species. Because the jaw is bilaterally symetrical, only one half of the jaw is described. The incisors are indicated first, followed by the canine, promolars and molars. The maxillary arcade or upper jaw is listed over the mandibular arcade or lower jaw.

upper :I C P M :2 1 2 3 Lower I C P M :2 1 2 3

Individual teeth can also be denoted: The first lower incisor would be I1 and the second upper molar would be M2.
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Dental Formulae

Deciduous

2102 2102

= 10

Permanent 2 1 2 3 2123

= 16

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Dental Formulae

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Dental Formulae

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Types of Dentition
Primary Teeth: Most babies are both with no teeth showing (Gum Pads). The 20 primary teeth erupt over the time from about 6 months to years.
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Types of Dentition
Permanent Teeth: Primary teeth fall out and are replaced by 32 permanent teeth. This happens over the time from when a child is from about 6 to 14 years old. As a permanent tooth forms under the gums and in the jawbone, the roots of the primary tooth undergo resorption. Then the primary tooth becomes loose and falls out. The permanent tooth will fill the space.

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Types of Teeth
INCISORS, CUSPIDS, BICUSPIDS, AND MOLARS

Incisors are the large, thin, rectangular-shaped teeth located in the front of your mouth. These teeth cut food for your mouth like sharp scissors. Canines/cuspids are next to the incisors, One tooth per quadrant, and are sharp and pointed. These teeth tear food. Premolars/bicuspids are the teeth behind the canines. Two teeth per quadrant. They tear and crush food. Molars are the teeth located in the back of your mouth. Three teeth per quadrant. They are flatter and wider than the other teeth. The word molar means millstone, since these teeth work similar to a millstone, grinding food.

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Types of Teeth

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Tooth Anatomy

The tooth is attached to a "socket" in the jaw bone called an alveolus. The attachment is through a fibrous capsule called the gomphosis. Brachydont or low-crowned teeth are what is seen in man, carnivores such as dogs and cats, and pigs. This type of tooth consists of a crown above the gingiva, a constricted neck at the gum line, and a root embedded in the jawbone.

The crown is encased in enamel and the root in cementum.

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Tooth Anatomy

Each tooth has four main parts, including the following:


enamel - the outer layer of the tooth. dentin - the inner layer and the main part of the tooth. pulp - part of the inside of the tooth that contains the nerve. root - the part of the tooth that secures it into the jaw.

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Functions of the pulp


I.

The most important function of the pulp is the production of dentin. Various cells are present, which not only help lay down tooth structure, but nourish the cells which lay down the tooth structure as well. Provides sensation through two sources. The majority of innervation is from unmyelinated fibers of the sympathetic nervous system, which regulate lumen size of the blood vessels. Additionally, myelinated sensory nerves of the trigeminal system are also present. Please note that pulp cannot differentiate between heat, touch, cold, pressure or chemicals; all are interpreted as pain. Nutrition. The high vascularity of the pulp ensures that dentin is nourished via the odontoblasts and processes. The pulp contains defensive cells (i.e. histiocytes) and has the ability to respond to injury by an inflammatory process.

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II.

III.

IV.

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TOOTH TISSUES: Cell Sources


DENTAL LAMINA DENTAL ORGAN DENTAL PAPILLA ENAMEL
Ameloblasts

TOOTH

DENTINE
Odontoblasts

PULP
CT cells

DENTAL SAC/FOLLICLE

CEMENTUM
Cementoblasts

PDL ALVEOLAR BONE


Fibroblasts Osteoblasts & clasts

A BONE

Crest

Tooth Anatomy

State the main ideas youll be talking about

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Tooth Anatomy

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Occlusal anatomy
BUCCAL / LABIAL / FACIAL Pit D I S T A L Cusp PALATAL / LINGUAL

Buccal - Surface of tooth adjacent to the


cheek. Describes the facial surface for premolars and molars Labial - Lip/front part of the facial surface for incisors and canines

M E S I Fissure A L

Facial - Outer surface of teeth (labial + buccal) Lingual - Surface of tooth adjacent to the
tongue

Distal - Surface of the tooth away from the


midline

Mesial - Surface of the tooth towards the


midline

Occlusal - The biting surface of posterior teeth


Therefore, individual cusps are named in the following manner: Mesiobuccal, Mesiolingual, Distobuccal and Distolingual
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Eruption
While every child is different, most of the primary teeth (baby teeth) come in between the ages of 6 and 12 months. The following are general guidelines for the eruption of the baby teeth:

The first tooth to erupt is usually a middle, front tooth on the lower jaw, known as the central incisor. This is followed by the second central incisor on the lower jaw. Next, the four upper incisors usually come in. The above is followed by the first four molars, and the remaining bottom two lateral incisors. Lateral incisors are beside of (lateral to) the central incisors. Then the cuspids, or the pointed teeth, appear. Usually, after the child reaches 2 years old, the four second molars (the last of the baby teeth) appear.

The teeth on the upper jaw usually erupt one to two months after the same tooth on the lower jaw. There are a total of 20 primary teeth. There is normally a space between all the baby teeth. This leaves room for the larger permanent teeth to erupt.

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Tooth Eruption
Deciduous
Incisors 6 - 10 months Canine 16 - 20 months Premolars Molars 10 - 24 months

Permanent
7 - 8 years 11 years 11 - 13 years 6 - 25 years

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Eruption

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Exfoliation

A child will begin losing his/her primary teeth (baby teeth) around the age of 6.
The first teeth to be lost are usually the central incisors. This is then followed by the eruption of the first permanent molars.

The last baby tooth is usually lost around the age of 12, and is the cuspid or second molar. There will be a total of 32 permanent, or adult, teeth. 1/17/2013 Dr. S S Hiremath

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5-yr CHILDS DENTITION: one arch

Oral

Pre-oral

These 12 teeth require a very coordinated remodelling of the bone (& PDL) supporting & enclosing them

3rd MOLARS TILTING ERUPTION


2nd 2nd

3rd

TILTING mechanism may be useful, e.g., in bringing upright the third molar that starts tilted
Failure can lead to an impacted molar still within the bone

To be controlled:structures & mechanisms


W hether teeth are to form (turtles & birds beaks) Dental lamina Number of teeth # of buds Position of teeth siting of buds Shape(s) of teeth shape of dental organ Crown formed before root start with cusp tissues root sheath for root control mesenchyme for three, 4 tooth tissues in sequence ectoderm for one tissue alveolar bony trough & dental sac mesenchyme Fasten tooth to surroundings dental sac mesenchyme Times of eruption ? & sequence of formation Organize surroundings Shedding of teeth Successional teeth Use bone remodeling cells on root Successional lamina & bud Reduced enamel epithelium

Protect enamel

TOOTH MOVEMENTS Occurring in eruption & use


AXIAL - in long axis of the tooth DRIFTING e.g., mesially, laterally TILTING ROTATORY By bone remodelling & PDL reorganization By root growth & bone remodelling

Combinations of these four movements frequently occur


Basil

ERUPTION: Problems
Delayed eruption

Early eruption
Missing tooth

Impaction - failure to erupt e.g., from too little gap after premature loss of deciduous tooth
Retained root fragment Malocclusion Infra-occlusion (not high enough) Excessive drift Tilting (can occur early from germ rotation)

PERIODONTITIS
TOOTH EPITHELIAL ATTACHMENTunstable, loosens & migrates down, & allows bacteria into CONNECTIVE TISSUE resulting in chronic infection & inflammation & systemic spread of bacteria & loss of teeth

GINGIVA
Periodontal ligament
Alveolar bone

Thank You

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