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GROUP PROPERTIES IN THE

PERIODIC TABLE
Chapter 9
PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS
 Each group in the Periodic table contains elements
that have similar properties
 We can predict the properties of elements if we
know the properties of the elements in the group.
 We will look at elements in Groups I and VII as
they have very distinct properties.

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What you need to know for
Group I elements...
 Describe the physical properties of Group I alkali
metals in terms of:
 appearance
 hardness
 density
 melting point
 Describe the chemical properties of Group I alkali
metals in terms of:
 reaction with water
 electronic structure and formation of ions

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GROUP I ELEMENTS - ALKALI METALS
 Group I elements are a group of very similar metals.
 They are the most reactive metals in the Periodic
Table.

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ALKALI METALS – Physical Properties
 Physical properties:
 Shiny, silvery solids
 Conduct electricity
Different from other
 Soft (can easily cut with a knife) metals!!
 Have low densities • hard
• high densities
 Have low melting points • high melting points

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ALKALI METALS – Physical Properties
 How do physical properties change down the group?

 Density increases
 Melting point decreases
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ALKALI METALS – Physical Properties
 Down group, the melting point of alkali metals decreases.
 This is because the proton number increases.

element proton number melting point


lithium
sodium
potassium
rubidium
caesium
francium

 Plot the graph of melting point against proton number to


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estimate the melting point of francium.
ALKALI METALS – Chemical Properties
 Reactions:
 React easily in air (they are kept under oil)
 React vigorously with water to give alkaline metal
hydroxide and hydrogen gas

alkali metal + water  alkaline metal hydroxide + hydrogen

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ALKALI METALS – Chemical Properties
alkali metal + water  alkaline metal hydroxide + hydrogen

Predict the rate of reaction of rubidium and caesium with


water. 9

What would be the equation for these two reactions?


ALKALI METALS – Chemical Properties
 Compounds of Group I elements are all ionic:
 Group I elements have 1 valence electron.
 How do they form ions? give away 1 electron
 What charge does the ion have? +1
 Therefore, compounds of Group I elements have similar
formulae.
chloride nitrate hydroxide oxide sulphate
element
(Cl-) (NO3-) (OH-) (O2-) (SO42-)
lithium
sodium
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potassium
GROUP VII ELEMENTS – THE HALOGENS
 The Group VII elements are a group of very similar non-
metals
 The elements are very reactive

 F and Cl are gases, Br is a liquid and I is a solid at room


temperature

gas
liquid
solid

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What you need to know for
Group VII elements...
 Describe the physical properties of Group VII halogens
in terms of:
 melting point
 boiling point
 appearance
 Describe the chemical properties of Group VII halogens
in terms of:
 reaction with metals
 electronic structure and formation of ions

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Halogens – physical properties
What patterns can you observe from the table below?
state at
molecular melting boiling
element room colour
formula point (°C) point (°C)
conditions
fluorine F2 -220 -189 gas pale yellow
chlorine Cl2 -101 -35 gas greenish yellow
bromine Br2 -7 59 liquid reddish brown
iodine I2 114 184 solid shiny black

diatomic increases increases become darker


down the down the down the
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group group group
Halogens – chemical properties
 Group VII halogens form ions easily:
 Group VII elements have 7 valence electrons.
 How do they form ions? receive 1 electron
 What charge does the ion have? -1
 Therefore, compounds of halogens with Group I
elements have similar formulae.

Formula of
Alkali metal Halogen
compound
lithium fluorine
sodium chlorine
potassium iodine 14
Halogens – chemical properties
 Reaction:
 React vigorously with metals to form ionic salts
 E.g.: sodium reacts with chlorine to form sodium
chloride
2Na(s) + Cl2(g)  2NaCl(s)

 Halogens become less reactive down the group.


 Fluorine is the most reactive element in the Periodic
Table!

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Halogens – chemical properties
 A more reactive halogen will
displace a less reactive halogen
from an aqueous solution of its ions.
 E.g.: chlorine with potassium iodide

Cl2(g) + 2KI(aq)  2KCl + I2

What happens when you react:


 fluorine with sodium chloride?

 bromine with potassium chloride?

 chlorine with lithium bromide?


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END OF CHAPTER
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