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KINEMATICS OF ROTATIONAL MOTION

ANGLES IN RADIANS ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT ANGULAR VELOCITY ANGULAR ACCELERATION COMPARING ROTATIONAL AND LINEAR KINEMATIC EQUATIONS

LESSON:
KINEMATICS OF ROTATIONAL MOTION

A body in motion may be travelling either in a straight line (rectilinear) or along a curve (curvilinear). By definition, a body in pure translational motion moves such that a line drawn between any two of its internal points remains parallel to itself after displacement.
An example is when you carry a glass of water from one place to another. It is held in a way such that the contents do not spill.

On the other hand, a body may also have rotational motion such that a line between any two point does not remain parallel to itself. This is what the contents of this presentation is about.

In SCIENCE, angles are often measured in radians (rad). When the arc length (s) is equal to the radius (r), the angle () swept by r is equal to 1 rad.

In general, any angle () measured in radians is defined as,

= s/r

Since the radian is the ratio of an arc length to the length of the radius, the units cancel the radian becomes a pure number. 360 equals 2 rad, or one complete revolution. This means that one revolution is equivalent to 6.28 rad.

Any angle in degrees can be converted into an angle in radians by multiplying it by 2/360, or its lowest term, /180. In symbols, this is written as: {rad}= (/180) * {degrees}. Let us have this example. Convert 110 into radians. (/180) * 110= (/18) 11= (11/18) rad

Angular displacement

In translation kinematics, the position of the body is defined as the displacement x from a certain reference point. In rotational kinematics, the position of a point on a rotating body is defined by the angular displacement from some reference line that connects this point to the axis of rotation

Angular displacement

The body has rotated through the angular displacement if the point which was originally at P1 is now at the point P2. This angular displacement is a vector that is perpendicular to the plane of the motion. The magnitude of this angular displacement is the angle itself. The direction depends whether it is a positive or a negative quantity. If it is positive, the rotation of the body is counterclockwise and the angular displacement points upward. If it is negative, it is just the opposite of the positive.

Angular displacement

Just as an angle in radians is defined by the ratio of the arc length to the radius, the angular displacement is equal to the change in the arc length (s), divided by the distance from the axis of rotation, r. It is given as, = (s)/r which means that s=r

Angular displacement

Sample Problem: A boy rides a merry-go-round at a distance of 1.25m from the center. If the boy moves through what angular displacement does he move?
GIVEN: r= 1.25m s= 2.25m FIND: SOLUTION: = (s)/r = 2.25m/1.25m = 1.8 rad

Angular displacement

Angular velocity
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Angular Velocity is similarly defined as the linear velocity. It is denoted by the lowercase of the Greek letter omega () and is defined as the ratio of the angular displacement to the time interval t, the time it takes an object to undergo that displacement. It describes how quickly the rotation takes place. In symbols, the average angular velocity is given as: ave = (/t)= (s/t) *1/r In the limit that the time interval approaches zero, (s/t) becomes the instantaneous speed, v.

Angular velocity

Angular Velocity is expressed in radians per second (rad/s). In some instances, angular velocities are expressed in revolutions per unit time such as revolutions per second (rps) and revolutions pre minute (rpm). 1 rev= 2 rad

Angular velocity

Linear Velocity of a point on the rotating body and angular velocity of the body are linked by the equation, s=r divided by t. That is,

s/t= r/t, but we know that, s/t= v and /t= . and so, v= r
This equation implies that, for a body rotating at an angular velocity , the farther the distance r that the body is from the axis of rotation, the greater is its linear or tangential velocity.

Angular velocity

Sample Problem: A child in a barber shop spins on a stool. If the child turns counterclockwise through 8 rad during an 8s interval, what is the average velocity of the childs rotation?
GIVEN: = 8 rad t= 8.0 s FIND: ave SOLUTION: ave = ()/ t = 8 rad / 8.0 s = 3.14 rad/s

Angular velocity

Angular acceleration

Angular Acceleration occurs when angular velocity changes with time. We will use the symbol alpha, , to denote angular acceleration. The average angular acceleration is given by this relationship, ave = (f - i)/(tf - ti) ave = /t where is the change in angular velocity and t is the change in time.

Angular acceleration

This quantity is expressed in the unit radians per second squared (rad/s2). There is a connection between instantaneous tangential acceleration (linear motion) and angular acceleration (rotational motion). The tangential acceleration associated with the motion of a point moving in a circular path of radius r is related to the instantaneous angular acceleration through:

at = r

Angular acceleration

Sample Problem: A figure skater begins spinning counterclockwise at an angular speed of 5 rad/s. She slowly pulls her arms inward and finally spins at 9 rad/s for 3s. What is her average angular acceleration during this time interval?
GIVEN: f= 9 rad/s i= 5 rad/s t= 3s FIND: ave SOLUTION: ave = (f - i) = (9 rad/s - 5 rad/s)/ 3s ave = 4.19 rad/s2

Angular acceleration

Comparing rotational and linear

kinematic equations

Comparing rotational and linear

kinematic equations

QUANTITY
Acceleration Displacement Velocity

SYMBOLS USED
Linear Motion Rotational Motion
a d v

Comparing rotational and linear

kinematic equations

Comparing rotational and linear

kinematic equations

Linear Motion
Vave = d/t = d/t Aave = v/t =(vf vi)/t Vf = Vi + at d = Vi(t) + (at2/2) d = (Vf2 Vi2)/ 2a

Rotational Motion
ave =/t = /t ave = /t =(f - i)/t f = i + t = i(t) + (t2/2) = (f2 - i2)/2

Comparing rotational and linear

kinematic equations