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Substation Automation Products Training

REL 670 Line Distance Protection IED

ABB Power Technologies AB, 2005

2006-03-30

Substation Automation Products Training

Contents

Application Main features User Friendly Packages Functions Benefits

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Substation Automation Products Training

Line Differential Protection: RED670

Application Areas

Multi-terminal lines with communication to 4 remote line ends Multi-terminal lines with transformers in the protected zone Tapped lines


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Tapped lines with transformers


Short lines Long lines with charging current compensation

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Features: RED670

Line differential terminal for:


All voltage levels OH-lines


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Cables
Double circuit lines Series compensated lines Single and two pole tripping Optional protection functions Digital communication between line ends Route switched communication networks Easy upgrading from 2 terminal to tapped line protection

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RED670 User Friendly Package


IED with a pre-selected set of functions: configured First Alternative: Single-Breaker application

Functionality for all over-head and cable lines: The user can order this version and apply it directly
Three-pole or single/three pole trip

Second Alternative: Multi-Breaker application

Functionality for all over-head and cable lines: The user can order this version and apply it directly Breaker related functions for each breaker

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Three-pole or single/three pole trip

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RED670 User Friendly Package: Single breaker

Line differential function

Over-/Undervoltage protection

Main function of the IED clearing all shunt faults

Often required equipment protection

Phase overcurrent protection

Simple back-up short circuit protection

Residual overvoltage protection

Residual overcurrent protection

Simple and sensitive earth fault protection Limitation of consequences of unsymmetric breaker function Best redundancy at communication failure

Pole Discordance protection

Simple back-up earth fault protection

Breaker failure protection

Distance Protection (option)

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Essential in a local redundant fault clearance system

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RED670 User Friendly Package: Single breaker

Fuse Failure detection

Power Swing Blocking (option) Disturbance recording


Necessary to avoid protection malfunction (voltage related) Enables choice of trip possibilities, 1 or 3 pole trip at single phase faults Standard functionality to increase network availability To avoid dangerous breaker closing

Trip logic

Essential for analysis of disturbances Primary fault classification Check of fault clearance

Autoreclosing

Fault clearance time Selectivity Over/Under function

Synchrocheck

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RED670 User Friendly Package: Multi-breaker

Same as single breaker with addition: STUB Protection

Auotoreclosing for two breakers

Sequential

Fault clearance of faulted 1 breaker diagonal, when line out

Synchrocheck for two breakers Pole discordance for two breakers Trip logic for two breakers

Breaker Failure protection for two breakers

Necessary for power system security

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Line Protection: Distance/Differential prot.

Distance Protection

Differential Protection

Local measurements of voltage and current Enables remote back-up protection Communication not primarily needed

Instantaneous fault clearance Absolute selectivity Best for Multi-terminal lines High sensitivity Not sensitive for power swing

Great Flexibility
Independent of IED at the other line end

Suitable for series compensated systems


Suitable for protection of short lines Easy to set

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RED670: Differential and Distance protection


Differential Protection: Dependent of communication Distance protection in RED670: Selective back-up protection if the communication is unavailable The distance protection will also serve as protection (main protection or back-up protection) for the adjacent busbar.

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Simple line differential protection application


Protected zone

RED 670

Comm. Channel

RED 670

Application as REL 551 and REL 561

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Three ended line application

Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

RED 670

Communication

Fault current can be fed from all line ends


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Five end line application


Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

Communication
RED 670 RED 670 RED 670

Fault current can be fed from all line ends


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CT connection to the protection


External current summation Internal current summation

Prot. IED

Prot. IED

Internal summation:

Improved stability of the differential protection Enables the integration of some breaker related functions RED670 has internal summation

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1 breaker switchyard application


Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

RED 670

Communication

No external current summation


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Application with power transformer in the protected zone


Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

RED 670

Communication

Considered phenomena:

Phase shift of the current through the transformer at different vector groups The inability of many transformers to transform zero sequence currents The inrush current, appearing at the energization of a transformer, will be detected as a differential current it the transformer is within the protected zone Deviation of tap changer position will cause false differential current to the protection, if not compensated for

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Application with power transformer in the protected zone

Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

Communication

Often required application


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Application with one delayed function


Protected zone instantaneous function

RED 670

Comm. Channel

RED 670

Protected zone delayed function

Enables selectivity to other protection IEDs


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Differential protection function


Main biased differential current function Complementary functions

Negative sequence fault discriminator


2nd harmonic restrain 5th harmonic restrain

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Fundamental frequency current phasors


I1 I2

RED 670

RED 670

RED 670

I3

Differential and bias currents in phase L1:


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I DiffL1 I1L1 I2 L1 I3L1

I Bias max( I 1L1 , I 1L 2 , I 1L3 , I 2 L1 , I 2 L 2 , I 2 L3 , I 3 L1 , I 3 L 2 , I 3 L3 )

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Biased Differential Protection Characteristic


Idiff Unrestrain

SlopeSection3

Operation

SlopeSection2

Restrain

Idmin
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EndSection1 Section 1 Section 2

EndSection2

Ibias

Section 3

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Negative sequence current

Negative sequence currents will occur during all types of faults, also for a transient period during three phase short circuits The fault point will serve as a source for negative sequence current Negative sequence current can be seen as normal phase currents but with reverse phase rotation In normal operation, under balance conditions, the negative sequence current components are zero

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Negative Sequence Source at Fault Point


Internal Fault
Protected zone Fault Point
RED 670

Communication I-

RED 670

External Fault
Protected zone Fault Point
RED 670 RED 670

Communication

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Negative Sequence Current Fault Discriminator


I- Remote 1 I- Local

RED 670

I- Remote = I- Remote 1 + I- Remote 2

RED 670

Studied Terminal
90 120 60

RED 670

I- Remote 2
150 30

If the two currents flow in the same direction, the fault is internal.
If the two currents flow in opposite directions, the fault is external.
Minimum Operation I-

External Fault Zone 180

Internal Fault Zone ROA

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Local I- : Reference 210

330

240 270

300

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Transformer Inrush Current


current in pu
10.0 phase L3 current

5.0

iL1 iL2 iL3


-5.0 0.0

CB closes

phase L1 current

20

40

60

80

100

time in ms

If Transformer in the zone: Inrush Current: Differential Current


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Detection: 2nd Harmonic and 5th Harmonic


As in normal transformer differential protection
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Transformer Overexcitation

If Transformer in the zone: Overexcitation: Differential Current Detection: 5th Harmonic


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As in normal transformer differential protection

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Current Transformer Saturation

Primary Current

Secondary Current

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High Degree of Harmonics (2nd and 5th)

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Functional Logic

Negative Sequence Fault Discriminator: Internal Fault


2nd and 5threstrain function are overridden The biased differential function operates without delay (start) Exception: Inrush current of transformer in the protected zone: Special logic will detect this 2nd and 5th harmonic restrain is active, with cross blocking function. This means that harmonics also in non-faulted phase will block the function. Temporarily (as long as external fault is declared plus 100 ms) the limit of differential current for operation will be increased to the value of IdminHigh.

Negative Sequence Fault Discriminator: External Fault


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Negative Sequence Fault Discriminator: No Operation

Normal differential protection function with 2nd and 5th harmonic restrain

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Temporary characteristic at external fault detection


Idiff Unrestrain

SlopeSection3

Operation

IdminHigh SlopeSection2 Restrain

Idmin
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EndSection1 Section 1 Section 2

EndSection2

Ibias

Section 3

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Simplified block diagram

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Simplified block diagram


Trip commands Information
CH1IL1RE CH1IL1IM CH1IL2RE CH1IL2IM Currents from all ends as phasors CH1IL1SM CH1IL2SM CH1IL3SM CH2IL1SM Curr. samples from all ends [magnitude] Trip request by unrestrained differential protection

Calculation of fundamental Magnitudes of frequency differential differential currents currents (3x) & bias current
Bias current

Differential and bias currents applied to operate / bias-, and unrestrained characteristics

>= 1
Start L1 Start L2 Start L2

TRIP

Output logic:
- 2nd harmonic block, - 5th harmonic block, -Cross-block logic - Enhanced trip for internal faults, - Blocked trip for external faults - Trip allowed for external and simultaneous internal faults - Conditional extra delay for trip signals

TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TRIP RES TRIP UNRE TRNS UNRE TRNSSE NS START STL1 STL2 STL3 BLK2H BLK2HL1 BLK2HL2 BLK2HL3 BLK5H BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 INTFAULT E XTFAULT

[samples]

Calculation of instantaneous differential currents (3x)

Instantaneous differential currents (samples)

Harmonic analysis (the 2nd, and the 5th),

2nd h. block

5th h. block CH1INSRE CH1INSIM CH1INSRE CH1INSIM


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[real, imag]

Neg. seq. currents from all ends as phasors

Calculation of negativesequence differential current (1x)

Two to six contributions to neg. seq. differential current as phasors

Disturbance detected with high sensitivity and characterized as internal or external

Internal fault External fault

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Charging Current

Ic1

Idiff,false = Ic1 + Ic2

Ic2

RED 670

Communication

RED 670

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Charging Current Compensation


Continuous estimation of differential current at no-fault condition: Charging current

Pre-fault charging current estimation kept during faults


Subtraction of the false pre-fault differential currents

At low resistance faults the fault current is large: dominating over the charging current: Error in the charging current compensation has minor influence At high resistive faults the voltage is maintained and the charging current is close to the non-faulted case

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Time synchronization

90deg

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Time coordination error 1 ms

360 o 18 o ms 20 ms

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Time synchronizing with the echo method


T2 T3

A B T1

T4

Time delay:

(T2 T1 ) (T4 T3 ) Td 2
(T1 T4 ) (T2 T3 ) t 2

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Clock difference:

Provided that send and receive delay times are equal

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Route switched networks with delay symmetry

The echo method allows for route switching with equal delay times for send and receive

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Maximum transmission time Td < 40 ms


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Route switched network without delay symmetry


GPS system required for set up GPS loss tolerated with:


Free-wheeling IED clocks Fall back to the echo method

D GPS clock GPS clock

GPS clock

A B

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Maximum transmission time Td < 40 ms


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GPS clock

Communication principle

5-terminal line with master-master system


Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

Comm. Channels

RED 670
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RED 670

RED 670

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Communication principle

5-terminal line with master-slave system


Protected zone

RED 670

RED 670

Comm. Channels
RED 670 RED 670 RED 670

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Communication of current sampled values

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

Current sample telegram sent

10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (ms)

Current sampling moment

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Communication of current sampled values at fault


Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent Current sample telegram sent

10

15

20

25

30

35

Time (ms)

Current collection time

Current sampling moment

Fault current measured

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Fault occurs

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Communication of binary signals

In each telegram there are eight binary signals freely configurable by the user in CAP configuration. These signals can be used for any purpose.

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Communication hardware solutions

LDCM with direct fiber (multi mode)

Max 3 km with LDCM

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Communication hardware solutions LDCM with an external optical to galvanic converter and a multiplexer
Multiplexer
Telecom. Network

Multiplexer

*)

*)

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*) Converting optical to galvanic G.703 or V.35 alternatively

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Communication hardware solutions LDCM with an external optical to optical converter for direct connection to a telecommunications network

G.703.E1
Telecom. Network

G.703.E1

64kbit/s

64kbit/s

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Redundant communication channels


2-terminal line with single breaker connected to route switched network via multiplexer, redundant channels

Telecom. Network

Telecom. Network

Primary channel Secondary redundant channel


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With redundant channels the primary channel normally is in operation. If the primary channel becomes faulty the operation is switched over to the redundant channel. If the primary is OK again it will take over the operation after a time delay.

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RED Single-Breaker application


Trip Bus

REL670

79 1/3ph Start O->I 86/94 I->O 50BF 3I>BF 21 Z<

25/27 SC/VC 52PD PD

REL670

68 ZPSB 51/67N

I
60 FF

DR
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87L 3Id/I>

Cont Interl
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59N UN

27 3U<

59 3U>

81U f<

81O f>

To Remote end

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RED 670 Double-Breaker application


L2 L2

REL670

REL670

79 1/3ph Start O->I 86/94 I->O 79 1/3ph Start O->I 86/94 I->O 21 Z<

25/27 SC/VC 52PD PD 52PD PD

25/27 SC/VC 50BF 3I>BF

S 50BF
3I>BF

68 ZPSB
51N/67N

IN>
4 4 4
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60 FF

DR
Cont Interl
59N UN 27 3U< 59 3U> 81U f< 81O f> 87L 3Id/I>

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To Remote end

RED 670 Multi-Breaker application


Trip Bus 79 1/3ph Start O->I 25/27 SC/VC 50BF 3I>BF MainB 52PD PD

86/94 I->O 50ST 3I>ST 21 Z<


REL670

68 ZPSB 51/67N

I
REL670

Start

79 1/3ph O->I

25/27 SC/VC MainB 50BF 3I>BF 52PD PD

60 FF

DR
86/94 I->O 87L 3Id/I>

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Cont Interl

59N UN

27 3U<

59 3U>

81U f<

81O f>

To Remote end

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RED 670 Multi-Breaker application w. Tee


Trip Bus 79 1/3ph Start O->I 25/27 SC/VC 50BF 3I>BF MainB MainB 52PD PD

86/94 I->O 50ST 3I>ST 21 Z<


REL670

68 ZPSB 51/67N

I
REL670

Start

79 1/3ph O->I

25/27 SC/VC MainB 50BF 3I>BF 52PD PD

60 FF

DR
86/94 I->O
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Cont Interl

59N UN

27 3U<

59 3U>

81U f<

81O f>

87Tee 3Id> OCT 87L 3Id/I>

To Remote end
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