Analysis for Shear

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

14 visualizações

Analysis for Shear

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Design of Rectangular Beams Under Torsion, Bending and Shear
- SSC Junior Engineer Question Papers for CIVIL
- r15syllabus
- Shear Capacity of Prestressed Hollow Core Slabs in Slim Floor Constructions
- Diesel Tank Example
- 18B.docx
- ETAG 001-Annex C 10-08-01
- theory of elasticity
- PR AQ 08 Aqueduct Pier
- Strength of Materials -spfu.pdf
- Pilar Jem Bat and 25
- cu31924090411723
- Board Exam Sample - Structural Engineering
- Cvf Spec Eng
- An Investigation on Spot Weld Modelling for Crash Simulation With LS-Dyna
- Lab7B Experiment Guide
- MECH13
- MECH1230 Exam Paper v4 2013 2014 Solutions
- circular slabs.pps
- Thin vs. Thick Shells

Você está na página 1de 23

Stress in an Uncracked Beam

Types of Cracks

Components of Shear Resistance

Modes of Failure

Effect of Prestressing Force

Introduction

The analysis of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete members for shear is more difficult compared to the analyses for axial load or flexure. The analysis for axial load and flexure are based on the following principles of mechanics. 1) Equilibrium of internal and external forces 2) Compatibility of strains in concrete and steel 3) Constitutive relationships of materials. The conventional analysis for shear is based on equilibrium of forces by a simple equation. The compatibility of strains is not considered. The constitutive relationships (relating stress and strain) of the materials, concrete or steel, are not used. The strength of each material corresponds to the ultimate strength. The strength of concrete under shear although based on test results, is empirical in nature

Shear stresses generate in beams due to bending or twisting. The two types of shear stress are called flexural shear stress and torsional shear stress, respectively. In this section, the analysis for shear refers to flexural shear stress. The torsional shear stress is covered in Section 5.4, Analysis for Torsion. To understand flexural shear stress, the behaviour of a simply supported beam under uniformly distributed load, without prestressing, will be explained first. The effect of prestressing force will be subsequently introduced. The presentation will be in the following sequence . 1) Stresses in an uncracked (homogenous) beam. 2) Types of cracks generated due to the combination of flexure and shear. 3) Components of shear resistance and the modes of failure. 4) Effect of prestressing force.

The following figure shows the variations of shear and moment along the span of a simply supported beam under a uniformly distributed load. The variations of normal stress and shear stress along the depth of a section of the beam are also shown.

Under a general loading, the shear force and the moment vary along the length. The normal stress and the shear stress vary along the length, as well as along the depth. The combination of the normal and shear stresses generate a two-dimensional stress field at a point. At any point in the beam, the state of twodimensional stresses can be expressed in terms of the principal stresses. The Mohrs circle of stress is helpful to understand the state of stress.

Before cracking, the stress carried by steel is negligible. When the principal tensile stress exceeds the cracking stress, the concrete cracks and there is redistribution of stresses between concrete and steel. For a point on the neutral axis (Element 1), the shear stress is maximum and the normal stress is zero. The principal tensile stress (1) is inclined at 45 to the neutral axis. The following figure shows the state of in-plane stresses.

Figure 5-1.2 State of stresses at a point on the neutral axis of a beam At the level of neutral axis, the normal stress is zero and the shear stress is maximum. An element at that level is under pure shear. A state of pure shear can be conceived as a state of biaxial tensile-compressive stresses. These principle stresses are inclined at 45 with respect to the axis of the beam. It is necessary to study the principle stresses to understand the cracking of concrete. The Mohrs circle is a representation of the state of in-plane stresses on surfaces of various inclinations passing through a point. The horizontal and vertical axes represent the normal and shear stresses, respectively.

For a state of pure shear, the centre of the Mohrs circle coincides with the origin of the axes. It is expected that the reader is familiar with these concepts from a course in strength of materials. Since the shear force is maximum near the supports, cracks due to shear occur near the supports. The cracks are formed around the neutral axis and perpendicular to the principal tensile stress (1). The cracks are thus inclined at 45 to the axis of the beam. The following sketch shows the inclination of the cracks forming at the neutral axis.

For a point near the bottom edge of the beam (Element 2), the normal stress is maximum and the shear stress is close to zero. The principal tensile stress (1) is almost parallel to the bottom edge. The angle of inclination of 1 with respect to the axis of the beam () is much smaller than 45. The following figure shows the state of in-plane stresses.

Figure 5-1.4 State of stresses at a point close to the edge under tension

Adjacent to the bottom edge (edge under tension), the tensile stress due to flexure is maximum and the shear stress is zero. The state of stress is nearly uniaxial tensile stress. The principal compressive stress is negligible. The Mohrs circle is shifted towards the axis of principal tensile stress. Since the moment is maximum at mid span, cracks due to flexure occur near mid span. The cracks are formed at the bottom edge and perpendicular to 1. Since 1 is parallel to the edge, the cracks are perpendicular to the edge.

The previous concepts can be used to develop the principal stress trajectories. The following figure shows the trajectories for a simply supported beam under a uniformly distributed load. The crack pattern can be predicted from these trajectories.

Figure 5-1.6 Principle stress trajectories (Courtesy: Pillai, S. U., and Menon, D., Reinforced Concrete Design)

2. Types of Cracks

The types and formation of cracks depends on the spanto-depth ratio of the beam and loading. These variables influence the moment and shear along the length of the beam. For a simply supported beam under uniformly distributed load, without prestressing, three types of cracks are identified. 1) Flexural cracks: These cracks form at the bottom near the midspan and propagate upwards. 2) Web shear cracks: These cracks form near the neutral axis close to the support and propagate inclined to the beam axis. 3) Flexure shear cracks: These cracks form at the bottom due to flexure and propagate due to both flexure and shear.

In the following figure, the formation of cracks for a beam with large span-to-depth ratio and uniformly distributed loading is shown.

b) Growth of flexural cracks and formation of flexure shear and web shear cracks.

c) Cracks before failure Figure 5-1.7 Formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam

The components of shear resistance are studied based on the internal forces at a flexure shear crack. The forces are shown in the following figure.

Figure 5-1.8 Internal forces at a flexure shear crack The notations in the previous figure are as follows. Vcz = Shear carried by uncracked concrete Va = Shear resistance due to aggregate interlock Vd = Shear resistance due to dowel action Vs = Shear carried by stirrups Vp = Vertical component of prestressing force in inclined tendons The magnitude and the relative value of each component change with increasing load.

4. Modes of Failure

For beams with low span-to-depth ratio or inadequate shear reinforcement, the failure can be due to shear. A failure due to shear is sudden as compared to a failure due to flexure. The following five modes of failure due to shear are identified. 1) Diagonal tension failure 2) Shear compression failure 3) Shear tension failure 4) Web crushing failure 5) Arch rib failure The occurrence of a mode of failure depends on the span-to-depth ratio, loading, cross-section of the beam, amount and anchorage of reinforcement. The modes of failure are explained next (Courtesy: Pillai, S. U., and Menon, D., Reinforced Concrete Design).

In this mode, an inclined crack propagates rapidly due to inadequate shear reinforcement.

There is crushing of the concrete near the compression flange above the tip of the inclined crack.

Shear tension failure Due to inadequate anchorage of the longitudinal bars, the diagonal cracks propagate horizontally along the bars.

Figure 5-1.11 Shear tension failure Web crushing failure The concrete in the web crushes due to inadequate web thickness.

For deep beams, the web may buckle and subsequently crush. There can be anchorage failure or failure of the bearing.

Figure 5-1.13 Arch rib failure The objective of design for shear is to avoid shear failure. The beam should fail in flexure at its ultimate flexural strength. Hence, each mode of failure is addressed in the design for shear. The design involves not only the design of the stirrups, but also limiting the average shear stress in concrete, providing adequate thickness of the web and adequate development length of the longitudinal bars.

In presence of prestressing force, the flexural cracking occurs at a higher load. For Type 1 and Type 2 sections, there is no flexural crack under service loads. This is evident from the typical moment versus curvature curve for a prestressed section (refer to Section 3.6, Analysis of Member under Flexure (Part V)). In presence of prestressing force, the web shear cracks also generate under higher load. With increase in the load beyond the cracking load, the cracks generate in a similar sequence. But, the inclinations of the flexure shear and web shear cracks are reduced depending on the amount of prestressing and the profile of the tendon.

The effect of prestressing force is explained for a beam with a concentric effective prestressing force (Pe)

Figure 5-1.14 A simply supported beam under concentric prestress and uniformly distributed loads For a point at the neutral axis (Element 1), there is normal stress due to the prestressing force (fpe). The principal tensile stress (1) is inclined to the neutral axis at an angle greater than 45. With the combination of shear stress, the principal compressive stress (2) is inclined to the neutral axis at an angle much smaller than 45. The following figure shows the state of inplane stresses.

Figure 5-1.15 State of stresses at a point on the neutral axis for a prestressed beam In the following figure, the formation of cracks for a prestressed beam with large span-to-depth ratio and uniformly distributed loading is shown. This figure can be compared with that for a reinforced concrete beam.

After cracking, in presence of prestressing force, the length and crack width of a diagonal crack are low. Thus, the aggregate interlock and zone of concrete under compression are larger as compared to a non-prestressed beam under the same load. Hence, the shear strength of concrete (Vc) increases in presence of prestressing force. This is accounted for in the expression of Vc.

- Design of Rectangular Beams Under Torsion, Bending and ShearEnviado poryyanan_1118
- SSC Junior Engineer Question Papers for CIVILEnviado porMaku Rajkumar
- r15syllabusEnviado porkpk
- Shear Capacity of Prestressed Hollow Core Slabs in Slim Floor ConstructionsEnviado porSulaiman Mohsin AbdulAziz
- Diesel Tank ExampleEnviado porSomi Khan
- 18B.docxEnviado porJamie Schultz
- ETAG 001-Annex C 10-08-01Enviado porjpjobdu
- theory of elasticityEnviado porRohan Persaud
- PR AQ 08 Aqueduct PierEnviado pornasarita
- Strength of Materials -spfu.pdfEnviado porBro
- Pilar Jem Bat and 25Enviado porAdi Deck
- cu31924090411723Enviado poreduarvesan1597
- Board Exam Sample - Structural EngineeringEnviado porEl Mer
- Cvf Spec EngEnviado porSathyamoorthy Venkatesh
- An Investigation on Spot Weld Modelling for Crash Simulation With LS-DynaEnviado porGaurav Deshpande
- Lab7B Experiment GuideEnviado porkostas.sierros9374
- MECH13Enviado porMani Kandan
- MECH1230 Exam Paper v4 2013 2014 SolutionsEnviado porseb
- circular slabs.ppsEnviado porsrivaruni
- Thin vs. Thick ShellsEnviado porMauricio_Vera_5259
- Enclosed,Thin SectionsEnviado poririnat101
- e303 Mechanics of SolidsEnviado porRamakrishna Miryala
- Lectures defEnviado porace
- 1111-110010-Mech.of SolidsEnviado porjaydeep
- 513Enviado porvipin
- Lecture 20a_ Checking Calculation of the Cross Section of the Big Aspect Ratio WingEnviado porJony Oliver Lazo Ramos
- S-TN-RCS-001Enviado pordanieldovale
- 3CE01 Civil Engg Unit-IIEnviado porsanjay
- Optimization of the Prestressing Force in Continuous Concrete BridgesEnviado porPedro Olivo
- Jacketed Pipe How ToEnviado porG4S PRINTSHOP

- Computer TechEnviado porvasanthk81
- DetailingEnviado porvasanthk81
- Copy of Old books collectionTamil Part 1.pdfEnviado porvasanthk81
- 2004-05 Schedule EEnviado porvasanthk81
- Design Of 6 storey Building in EtabsEnviado porMisqal A Iqbal
- GrillageEnviado porvasanthk81
- Corolla SedanEnviado porSolanum tuberosum
- 05_EC2WS_Arrieta_Detailing.pdfEnviado porLuigiForgerone
- Design of Circular DomesEnviado porJose Luis Bazualdo Cabrera
- Effect of non sway and sway methods for analysis and design of reinforced concrete frames for multi-storey building by Noor Sadiqul Hasan et al.pdfEnviado porgulilero_yo
- Lap- Anchorage Length -EC 2Enviado porSimon Lsm
- Lecture 7 Detailing PHG A1 Rev 10 2 Nov 16 Print (1)Enviado porTim Chong
- NETWORK TOPOLOGIESEnviado porvasanthk81
- Brick WorkEnviado porvasanthk81
- Activity Sheets KG1Enviado porSam Gaber
- CupCakeColorbpp.pdfEnviado porvasanthk81
- SoilTestRpt.pdfEnviado porvasanthk81
- IJEIT1412201304_27Enviado porvasanthk81
- lesson9.pdfEnviado porKomalesh Theeran
- Tamil Rhymes&SongsEnviado porGiri Sankar
- Computer Networks Lect 10 & 11Enviado porvasanthk81
- Quality Control & Quality Assurance Engineer - Job DescriptionEnviado porcvssbv
- Bearing Wall DesignEnviado porChun Pong Wong
- AECT480 Lecture 20Enviado poranon_786721156
- EM 1110-2-2901 Tunnels and Shafts in RockEnviado porxhifrah
- Brunei ClimateEnviado porAimi Adam
- plugin-BSP-02-Standard-1643 - Excavation (Mod 05, Rev. 2.1)Enviado pormilitia14
- alphabet_chartEnviado poramar3g

- VP Director Operations Strategy in Los Angeles CA Resume Don OrrEnviado porDonOrr
- Performance Metrics - RefEnviado porrahul
- Tetraseguridad NewEnviado porManuel Añari
- K3G630AB2102_Webpdm.pdfEnviado porSharath Kota
- Using Javascript to Enhance Script LogicEnviado porknoxmeister
- DB-1985-03-04Enviado porMatthew Walker
- Servo Motors PsgEnviado porjaimeasisa
- 03 the Long and the Short of It - Exploring DurationEnviado porAndyBrooke
- Transmit AlEnviado porRaul Garabiles
- geometry nuts and boltsEnviado porapi-233470584
- a6Enviado porpasticcio
- Contact Information US EmbassyEnviado porNOELGREGORIO
- INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CRIMESEnviado porCzar E-Bra
- GEST 79 79 Edition 4 (Transfer of Liquid Chlorine by Padding With a Chlorine Compressor)Enviado porAnonymous 20VAru
- Cdma Twp FinalEnviado porsunil shahu
- Firmware Revision nextar 127 slrEnviado porLomaGoma
- NoteEnviado pormoinpharm
- admincpEnviado porFreddie Mungen
- Policy Regarding Revision of NormsEnviado porAakash Lohia
- company profileEnviado porRajat Mehta
- 1756-in619_-en-pEnviado porOlid Antonio Castillo Palmeros
- spra958kEnviado porShelby Perez
- pdfsecret.com_programming-in-ansi-c-by-e-balagurusamy-solution-manual-balagurusamy-6th-edition-ansi-c-by-e-balagurusamy-5th-edition-edition-concepts-of-programming.pdfEnviado porSahani Vinay
- MOP for MW CRs_v_9.0.docxEnviado porLasin Chottu Suresh
- SyllabusEnviado porhokeypokey
- Course Description B3 Traction StandardsEnviado porkasyapreddy
- Lukas LK-6200 Plus manualEnviado porAngelev
- Foundations of Human EcologyEnviado porBo Coleman
- Henry Schein Recognized by Ethisphere as One of the World's Most Ethical Companies For Second Year In A RowEnviado porHenry Schein
- Mimics Student Edition Course BookEnviado porleobia