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DRUG STUDY

KALIUM DURULE 1 tab TID


Drug Class: Electrolyte Actions: Principal intracellular cation of most body tissues, participates in a number of physiologic processes-maintaining intracellular tonicity; transmission of nerve impulses; contraction of cardiac skeletal and smooth muscle; maintenance of normal renal function; also plays role in carbohydrate metabolism and various enzymatic reactions.

Indications: Prevention and correction of potassium deficiency; when associated with alkalosis, use potassium chloride when associated with acidosis, use potassium acetate, bicarbonate, citrate and gluconate IV: treatment of cardiac arrhythmias due to cardiac glycosides Contraindications: CI with allergy to tartrazine, aspirin; therapy with potassium-sparing diuretics or aldosterone-inhibiting agents; severe renal impairment with oliguria, anuria, azotemia; untreated Addisons disease; hyperkalemia; acute dehydration; heat cramps, GI disorders that delay passage in the GI tract Use cautiously with cardiac disorders

Adverse Effects: Dermatologic: Rash GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, GI obstruction, GI bleeding, GI ulceration or perforation Hematologic: hyperkalemia-increased serum potassium, ECG changes Local: tissue sloughing, local necrosis, local phlebitis and venospasm with injection

Nursing Considerations: Assess for allergy to the drug Arrange for serial serum potassium levels before and during therapy Administer liquid form to any patient with delayed GI emptying Administer after meals or with food and a full glass of water to decrease GI upset Have patient swallow tablet whole, do not crush or chew tablets Do not use salt substitutes Inform patient about the adverse effects and instruct him/her to report occurrence

COLCHICINE 50 mg 1 tab TID


Drug class: Antigout drug Actions: Exact mechanism is unknown; decreases deposition of uric acid, inhibits kinin formation and phagocytosis, and decreases inflammatory reactions to urate crystal deposits.

Indications: Treatment and prophylaxis of acute gout flares in adults Treatment of familial Mediterranean fever in adults and children 4 year and older Contraindicaions: Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to colchicine, concurrent use of cyclosporine, ranolazine; presence of heptic or renal impairment

Adverse Effects: CNS: peripheral neuropathy Dermatologic: alopecia, rash, purpura, dermatoses GI: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspepsia GU: azoospermia, oligospermia Hematologic: bone marrow suppression, elevated AST and ALT, aplastic anemia Other: myopathy, muscle pain, weakness, rhabdomyolysis

Nursing Considerations: Assess hypersensitivity to the drug and renal or hepatic disorders Obtain baseline and periodic liver and renal function tests, serum uric acid levels, CBC Administer drug as prescribed Encourage patient to avoid grapefruit juice Monitor patient for relief of pain and signs and symptoms of acute gout flair Monitor GI effects, antidiarrheal medications may be needed Inform patient about the adverse effects and instruct him/her to report if any occurs

OMEPRON 40 mg/IV OD
Drug Class: Antisecretory drug; Proton Pump Inhibitor Actions: Gastric acid-pump inhibitor: suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the hydrogen-potassium ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cells; blocks the final step of acid production

Indications: Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer and active benign gastric ulcer Treatment of heartburn or symptoms of GERD Long-term treatment therapy for pathologic hypersecretory conditions Contraindications: Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to omeprazole or its components

Adverse Effects: CNS: headache, dizziness, asthenia, vertigo, insomnia, apathy, anxiety, paresthesia, dream abnormalities Dermatologic: rash, inflammation, urticarial, pruritus, alopecia, dry skin GI: diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dry mouth, tongue atrophy Respiratory: URI symptoms, cough, epistaxis Other: cancer in preclinical studies, back pain, fever

Nursing Considerations: Assess for hypersensitivity to drug or any of its components Administer before meals Instruct the patient to swallow capsules whole; do not chew or crush Inform patient about the adverse effects and instruct him/her to report if any occurs

GLUCOBAY 50 mg/tab BID


Drug Class: Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitor; Antidiabetic Actions: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor obtained from the fermentation process and process of a microorganism; delays the digestion of indigested carbohydrates, leading to smaller increase in blood glucose following meals and a decrease in glycosylated Hgb; does not enhance insulin secretion, so its effect are additive to those of the sulfonylureas in controlling blood glucose

Indications: Adjunct to diet to lower blood glucose in those patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose hyperglycemia cannot be managed by diet alone Combination therapy with sulfonylurea, metformin or insulin to enhance glycemic control in patients who do not receive adequate control with diet and either drug alone Contraindications: Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to drug; DKA; cirrhosis; inflammatory bowel disease; conditions that deteriorate with increase gas in the bowel; type 1 diabetes, colonic ulceration

Adverse Effects: Endocrine: hypoglycaemia GI: abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting Hematologic: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia

Nursing Considerations: Assess hypersensitivity to drug Monitor serum glucose levels frequently to determine drug effectiveness and dosage Inform patient the likelihood of abdominal pain and flatulence Instruct the patient not to discontinue the drug without consulting the health care provider Inform patient about the adverse effects and instruct him/her to report if any occurs

SIMVASTATIN 10 mg/tab HS
Drug Class: Antihyperlipidemic; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Actions: Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, resulting in a decrease in serum cholesterol, serum LDLs and either an increase or no change in serum HDLs

Indications: Adjunct to diet in the treatment of elevated total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol with primary hypercholseterolemia To reduce the risk of coronary disease, mortality and CV events, including CVA, TIA, MI and reduction in the need for bypass surgery and angioplasty in patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia Treatment of patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia Contraindications: Contraindicated with allergy to simvastatin, fungal byproducts, active liver disease or unexplained, persistent elevations of serum transaminase, pregnancy, lactation Use cautiously with impaired hepatic and renal functions, cataracts

Adverse Effects: CNS: headache, asthenia, sleep disturbances GI: flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramps, constipation, nausea, dyspepsia, heartburn, liver failure Respiratory: sinusitis, pharyngitis Other: rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, arthralgia, myalgia

Nursing Considerations: Assess hypersensitivity to drug Administer in the evening Instruct the patient not to drink grapefruit juice while using this drug Obtain periodic blood tests Inform patient about the adverse effects and instruct him/her to report if any occurs

ZEGEN (Cefuroxime) 1.5 grams/ IV every 8 hours


Drug Class: Second generation Cephalosporin Actions: It exerts its bactericidal activity by interfering with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. It binds to specific penicillin-binding proteins responsible for the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a heteropolymeric structure that gives the cell wall its mechanical stability.

Indications: infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms including upper & lower respiratory tract uncomplicated skin & skin structure infections treatment of bone & joint infections surgical infections UTI Contraindications: breastfeeding women as cefuroxime axetil is distributed into milk. hypersensitivity to cefuroxime or other cephalosporins or any component of Zegen Patients taking aminoglycosides and cephalosporins Patients taking furosemide and ethacrynic acid. Cepahalosporin taken with furosemide increase the risk of renal toxicity

Adverse Effects: Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or loose stools, gagging, abdominal/epigastric pain, abdominal cramps, dyspepsia, flatulence, heartburn, indigestion, GI bleeding and infection Hematologic: Decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations, transient eosinophilia and neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, thrombocytosis, basophilia, anemia, aplastic and hemolytic anemia, epistaxis or haemorrhage Nervous System: Headache, dizziness, vertigo, malaise, fatigue, drowsiness, somnolence or sleepiness, weakness, insomnia Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm of the neck, muscle cramps or stiffness, arthralgia/joint pain or swelling

Nursing Responsibilities: Before giving the drug, inquire about any sensitivity to the drug or other cephalosporins. Store the reconstituted suspension in the refrigerator Monitor patient's renal function when cefuroxime is given concurrently with aminoglycosides and/or diuretics because adverse renal effects may occur Monitor the patient for superinfection Report to the physician if skin rashes occur

ZENITH 500 gm/ tab 1 tab OD


Drug Class: Macrolide Actions: Azithromycin monohydrate is active against certain bacteria. Azithromycin passes into the bloodstream from the GIT and is carried to the diseased tissue, where it starts acting against the bacteria.

Indications: Treatment of the following conditions caused by organisms sensitive to azithromycin: Infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract eg, infections of the ear, nose and throat, bronchitis and pneumonia; infections of the skin and soft tissue; infections of the genitals due to Chlamydia trachomatis. Contraindication: Hypersensitivity to azithromycin monohydrate or other macrolides Pregnancy and lactation

Adverse Effects: Hypersensitivity Reactions: Rare: Hypersensitivity reactions eg, skin and mucous skin reactions; redness with or without itching, photosensitivity (especially sunlight and UV rays), pain in the joints GI Tract Disorders: Problems may occasionally occur in the form of loss of appetite, impaired digestion, loose stools, upper abdominal complains (pain, cramps), nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Liver and Bile Duct Disorders: Cases of impaired liver function including hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic necrosis and hepatic failure have been reported. Kidneys: Inflammation of the kidneys and acute renal failure

Nursing responsibilities: Inquire about hypersensitivity to azithromycin and other macrolides Instruct the patient that the drug can be taken with or without food, to swallow whole, do not chew/crush. Monitor patients with impaired liver function, kidney disease or serious GI problems with vomiting and diarrhea; with serious allergies or asthma. If side effects occur like severe and persistent diarrhea, inform the physician immediately Remind the patient to take the medication as prescribed by the physician Do not give to pregnant or lactating women

CELEBREX 400 mg 1 cap OD


Drug Class: Non- Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Action: It inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)

Indications: Treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Management and treatment of postsurgical and dental pain and acute flare pain of osteoarthritis Contraindications: Patients with known hypersensitivity to celecoxib and those who have demonstrated allergic-type reactions to sulfonamides. Celebrex should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs

Adverse effects: General: Aggravated allergy, allergic reaction, asthenia, chest pain, cyst NOS, generalized edema, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, influenza-like symptoms, pain, peripheral pain Gastrointestinal: Constipation, diverticulitis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hemorrhoids, hiatal hernia, melena, dry mouth, stomatitis, tenesmus, tooth disorder, vomiting. Cardiovascular: Aggravated hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary artery disorder, myocardial infarction

Nursing Responsibilities: Tell the patient that the drug may be taken with or without food. Do not give to patients with hypersensitivity to celecoxib, and patients with asthma. Monitor patient for GI ulceration or bleeding. Inform the patient about signs and symptoms of serious GI toxicity and to tell immediately to the physician if it occurs. Instruct the patient to take the medication as prescribed to avoid drug overdose.

GABAPENTIN (Neurotin) 100 mg/ cap OD at HS


Drug class: Anti- convulsant Actions: Gabapentin was formed by the addition of a cyclohexyl group to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which allowed this form of GABA to cross the blood-brain barrier. Despite its structural similarity to GABA, gabapentin does not bind to GABA receptors in the CNS. Its mechanism of action is unknown, but may involve enhanced neuronal GABA synthesis.

Indications: Treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalization; neuropathic pain. Contraindications: Allergies, depression Myasthenia Gravis Abnormal liver function test Moderate to severe kidney impairment Having thoughts of suicide Taking antacid lactating mothers

Adverse effects: Somnolence Dizziness Ataxia Fatigue Nystagmus Tremor Diplopia Amblyopia Pharyngitis Dysarthria

Weight gain Dyspepsia Amnesia Weakness Paresthesia Arthralgia Purpura Leucopenia Anxiety UTI

Nursing responsibilities: Tell the patient that the drug may be taken with or without food. Gabapentin should be used with caution in patients with a history of psychotic illness, renal impairment, dosage reduction in patients with reduced renal function or those undergoing hemodialysis. Do not give the drug with antacid because antacids slows the absorption of gabapentin

APPEBON 1 cap OD
Drug Class: Appetite enhancer Action: unknown Indications: Poor appetite, underweight, anorexia nervosa For nutritional support in post-op cases, metabolic disorders & convalescence. Contraindications Angle closure glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy & primary hemochromatosis

Adverse Effects: Drowsiness & dulling of mental alertness, dry mouth, headache, nausea, jitteriness, tiredness. Nursing considerations: Instruct the patient to take the drug with food Educate the patient that the drug may impair ability to drive or operate machinery. Use cautiously in pregnant women

INDERAL (Propanolol) 10 mg/tab 1 tab BID


Drug class: Beta- blocker Actions: Propranolol inhibits the sympathetic nervous system by blocking the beta receptors on the nerves of the sympathetic system. Since stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for increasing the rate with which the heart beats, by blocking the action of these nerves propranolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms. It also reduces the force of contraction of heart muscle and thereby lowers blood pressure. By reducing the heart rate and the force of muscle contraction, propranolol reduces the need for oxygen by heart muscle. Since heart pain (angina pectoris) occurs when oxygen demand of the heart muscle exceeds the supply of oxygen, propranolol, by reducing the demand for oxygen, is helpful in treating heart pain.

Indications: angina anxiety migraine essential tremor high blood pressure arrhythmias thyrotoxicosis Contraindications: History of bronchial asthma or bronchospasm, bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, metabolic acidosis, after prolonged fasting, severe peripheral arterial circulatory disturbances, 2nd- or 3rd-degree heart block, sick sinus syndrome, untreated (w/ an -adrenoceptor antagonist) pheochromocytoma, uncontrolled heart failure, Prinzmetal's angina. Patients prone to hypoglycemia.

Adverse Effects: Cold extremities, GI & sleep disturbances, fatigue, lassitude. Deterioration in heart failure, mood changes. Hypoglycemia, paresthesia. Bradycardia, confusion, nightmares, dizziness, postural hypotension which may be associated w/ syncope, heart block, alopecia, thrombocytopenia, purpura, psoriasiform skin reactions, exacerbation of psoriasis, visual disturbances, CNS symptoms including hallucinations & psychoses. Rashes & dry eyes (discontinue drug). Exacerbation of intermittent claudication, Raynaud's phenomenon, bronchospasm,

Nursing Considerations:
Do not give this drug to pregnant women. Infants exposed to this medication during pregnancy may have low birth weight, low blood sugar, or slow breathing/heartbeat. Do not give this medication to breastfeeding mothers. This drug passes into breast milk. Instruct the patient to take the drug on an empty stomach. Inquire about any sensitivity to the drug or any of its contents.

Nursing Considerations:
Instruct the patient not to smoke. Educate patients with diabetes that this product may prevent the fast/pounding heartbeat they would usually feel when their blood sugar level falls too low (hypoglycemia). To reduce the risk of dizziness and light headedness, instruct patient to get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position. Educate the patient not to stop taking the drug without consulting the physician.