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Industrial Security System with Auto Dialer

I. Ravi 03B81A0446 V. Ravi Kumar 03B81A0448 G. Satish Kumar 03B81A0460

BLOCK DIAGRAM

ACCESS CONTROL
Access control refers to the practice of restricting the entrance to a physical property, a building or a room to authorized persons. Access control can be achieved by 1. Human ( a guard or receptionist ) 2. Mechanical means ( locks and keys ) 3. Electronic means ( passwords, access cards etc. ) Basic requirements of access control 1. Authenticity 2. Reliability 3. Easy of use

Authenticity
Access control systems are desired to be able to authenticate the user based on his unique proof of ownership or physical criteria.

Reliability
The reliability of access control system is decided by various factors including failure rate, up-time and the security level..

Ease of use
The ease of using the access control system is often the most desirable feature. It often burdensome for user to pass through such access control system and hence it is must to achieve simplicity in the application usage. However a solution should not be a compromise towards security

VIBRATION DETECTOR
A vibration sensor uses thin film piezoelectric transducers to sense nearby mechanical vibrations. Two basic types of vibration detectors are 1. Shock detectors : sensing high amp vibrations 2. Seismic detectors: sensing low amp vibrations Shock detectors are installed mainly on multicomponent, elastic window and door frame structures. The sensitivity of the detector enables detection of low frequency vibrations like those occurring in elastic building materials. Seismic detectors are installed mainly on a hard, uniform base e.g. steel plates or concrete walls. Their detection time is longer than that of a shock detector and as a result their false alarm immunity is higher.

SMOKE DETECTOR
A smoke detector is basically an electrical circuit that gets interrupted or disturbed by smoke particles. All smoke detectors consist of two basic parts: a sensor to sense the smoke and a very loud electronic horn to wake people up. Two most common types of smoke detectors are 1. Photoelectric detectors 2. Ionization detectors

PHOTOELECTRIC DETECTOR
Inside the smoke detector there is a light source and a sensor, which are positioned at 90-degree angles to one another. In the normal case, the light from the light source on the left shoots straight across and misses the sensor. When smoke enters the chamber, however, the smoke particles scatter the light and some amount of light hits the sensor. Photoelectric detectors are better at sensing smoky fires, such as a smoldering mattress.

IONIZATION DETECTOR
An ionization chamber is very simple. It consists of two plates with a voltage across them, along with a radioactive source of ionizing radiation, as shown in the figure. It can detect particles of smoke that are too small to be visible. It includes a tiny mass of radioactive americium-241, which is a source of alpha radiation. The radiation passes through an ionization chamber, which is an air-filled space between two electrodes, and permits a small, constant current to flow between the electrodes. Any smoke that enters the chamber absorbs the alpha particles, which reduces the ionization and interrupts this flow of current, setting off the alarm. Hot air entering the chamber changes the rate of ionization and therefore, the electric current level, which triggers an alarm. This type of detector is cheaper than the optical detector, however it is sometimes rejected for environmental reasons.

AUTO DIALER
Whenever there is intrusion or accidents (fire, smoke etc) occurs in the industry auto dialer automatically dials the already fed numbers.

When dialing the microcontroller generates dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) signals corresponding to phone numbers being dialed. In a dual tone telephone system, the dial tone corresponding to each digit is a superposition of two sine waves with different frequencies.
Once the user chooses a phone number from the e-directory to dial, the microcontroller will generate a "sequence" of DTMF pulses that correspond to the sequence of phone number digits.

Telephone key pad

FIRE SENSOR
Fire sensors are an essential facilities element for detecting fires in industries accurately and quickly and for reliably accomplishing both first-order firefighting and second-order disaster prevention. The main methods of detecting fires include: detecting the infrared rays generated by the flame, detecting the temperature rise caused by the fire, and smoke detection.

LPG SENSOR
Butane and Propane LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) are heavier than air, and can collect in the bilge if theres a leak. When the concentration of gas to air rises to 2% (the lower explosive limit or LEL), the mixture will ignite if you strike a match to light the cooker or if there is a spark from your electrical system. The LPG sensor is made from a sintered metal oxide, which, on detecting gas passing over it, increases in electrical conductivity. This is used to trigger the alarm.

IR DETECTION
The area under surveillance is monitored by an infrared detector which activates the transmitter upon the receipt of abrupt differences in infrared radiation levels, associated with the presence of a warm body in an otherwise equilibrated environment. The two basic parts for working with IR are the emitter and the detector. The emitter is typically an LED that emits near-infrared light. A typical wavelength is 880nm, which is just beyond the human eyes ability to see. There are several types of detectors for IR light. There are photo-diodes, phototransistors, and a couple others.