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Instructional Design

educational technology
image: http://bit.ly/X5s1W2

by: Tina Bale

Table of Contents
Title Slide & Postcard List: 1-2
History of Instructional Design: 3-4 Definition of Instructional Design: 5-6 Notion of "Systems": 7-8 Use of Models: 9-10 Theories Guide Instruction: 11-12

Learning Model: 13-14

Best Practices: 15-16 Theories and Strategies: 17-18 Communications Theory: 19-20 Systems Theory: 21-22 Constructivism: 23-24 Empiricism: 25-26 Behaviorism: 27-28 Information Processing Theory: 29-30 Educational Technology & ID: 31-34 APA references: 35

Instructional Design: History


Instructional Design


Creating a well-planned instructional design requires seeing the multiple layers, and examining them separately-then together-in an ongoing process. This image caught my eye because of the contrast, symmetry and variety of elements. A good design requires thought, planning, and discipline. The designer must consider a multitude of variables; from the diversity of the learner and instructor, to creating engaging instructional materials, and last but not least, a detailed plan for implementation.



This image represents the process of an idea circling through layers of thought and experience, before settling on a final impression. Some images have an immediate impact, and images are perceived differently by each person. This picture reveals the variety of processes we go through when confronted with something. The systematic process of an instructional designer is similar, but more complex. A systematic process is used for planning, because of the intricacies of instructional design.

Use of Models


There are many variables to be considered in the instructional design process; models are way to provide guidance. Utilizing models allows the designer to cover all bases, which need to be taken step by step. As stated in our textbook, the term instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional material, activities, information resources, and evaluation. (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 4) The next postcard includes a graph illustrating how instructional models are connected to learning theories.

Theories Guide Instruction


"Models are based on theories because they allow us to explain, predict, or control events. Instructional design has drawn from many theory bases. However, the major contributions have been communication theory, systems theory, theories of learning, and theories of instruction. It is learning and instructional theory that continue to have the most substantial influence on the principles of instructional design. (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 23) I chose this all-inclusive graph because learning is directly in the center. This conveys that learning is the central goal, regardless of the model being used. The next postcard image provides evidence of student retention rates, based on the teaching strategy being used.

Learning Model


Students thrive in learning environments when they are active, and the role of the teacher is more like a guide or facilitator. This is in contrast to teacher directed activities, where the students are less active. But as stated previously, different situations call for adapting the method of instruction. The next image is the widely used model--ADDIE.

Best Practices

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The ADDIE principles are considered industry standard best practices. The main components in this model can also be found in most others. They are good guiding principles to follow:

Analyze Design Develop Implement Evaluate

Theories and Strategies


Instructional practices evolve from theories. This image includes some well-known theories, and methods of instruction derived from them. I will cover Behaviorism and Constructivism in more depth later. They are included in this image because it illustrates the relationship and differences between them. The next postcard is about communications theory, which has a more recent impact on instructional design.

Communications Theory


As the image reveals, both parties can be senders and receivers of the message. The diagram illustrates the fundamental concept of communications theory. What is feedback and what is the message is arbitrary, communication is a dialogic process. The study of interpersonal and mass communication has provided concepts and models that have a foundational influence on instructional design thinking. (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Another theory influencing present day instructional design is Systems Theory.

Systems Theory


I chose this image to represent the separate processes coming together as one complete whole. A system is defined as a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together towards some common goal. (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) There are subsystems within each system, and they are all connected in some way. These fundamental concepts apply to the different systems an instructional designer must consider. The basic premise is: when something changes in one system, it will have an impact on a different system. The systems theory provides an efficiency model for instructional designers to follow when accounting for the problems that may arise in one system when a change is made to another. The next postcard outlines constructivism, and some of the principles used in the instructional design process.



The theory of Constructivism is a philosophy within a larger category described as rationalism. This philosophy is characterized by the belief that reason is the primary source of knowledge and reality is constructed rather than discovered. The roots of constructivism can be traced to Jean Piaget. (Smith & Ragan,2005, p.19) Piaget coined the phrase knowledge is not transmitted: it is constructed. Other key assumptions include:

Knowledge is constructed from experience. Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge. Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience. (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p.19)



Also referred to as objectivism, this theory asserts knowledge is only acquired through sensory experiences. The concept relevant to instructional designers is the use of observation and experimentation. These processes are highly valued by empiricist, and instructional designers integrate them as a vital part of their systematic process. The next overview is on behaviorist learning theories.



The foundations of our current teaching practices can be traced to behaviorist theories. The psychologist B.F. Skinner discovered a change in behavior can be achieved through the use of rewards and punishments. These notions of repetition and conditioning are implemented in educational settings, to reach instructional goals. Some of these principles are considered best practices in the educational industry. The emphasis of behaviorist theory is the influence of the environment on the learner. The instructional designer analyzes these elements during their process. The next postcard outlines the theory on information processing.

Information Processing


The image illustrates how information is forgotten without rehearsal. The premise of information processing is finding ways to transfer information from short to long term memory, so data can be stored and recalled when needed. This concept applies to instructional designers as they try to include activities that lead to better memory and learning. The next postcard provides an analogy of how educational technology relates to instructional design.

Educational Technology


As the image conveys, technology can be used to tap into a collective intelligence. Additionally, with advancements in tablets, internet connectivity, and mobile apps. technology is a viable and powerful resource. Instructional design relates to educational technology in many ways. Technology can be leveraged to improve education through innovation, creativity, efficiency, and presentation. Instructional material can be delivered in a way the students find meaningful and relative to their lives. This relates because technology has an impact on nearly every aspect of our students' lives. They understand this means of communication and we need to attempt to reach them through it.

Educational Technology



APA References


Behaviorism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional Design third edition