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Movement of

Substances
Chapter 3
Learning Objectives...
DIFFUSION
• define diffusion
• discuss its importance in nutrient uptake and gaseous
exchange in plants and humans.
OSMOSIS
• define osmosis
• discuss the effects of osmosis on plant and animal tissues.
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
• define active transport
• discuss its importance as an energy-consuming process by
which substances are transported against a concentration
gradient,
– E.g.: ion uptake by root hairs
– E.g.: uptake of glucose by cells in the villi

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
What are these
items???

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
What happens when
you spray air
freshener in one
corner of the room?

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Movement of air
particles...

The gas
particles spread
out from the
source to the
rest of the
room.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Movement of air
particles...
The gas
particles spread
from a region
of higher
concentration
to a region of
lower
concentration.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Movement of air
particles...
• Air freshener particles spread from a region
of higher concentration to a region of
lower concentration.
• The two regions of different concentrations
form a concentration gradient.

n
it o
t ra t
e n en
n c di
a
co gr

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Movement of air
particles...
• Air freshener particles will keep moving
down the concentration gradient until the
particles are evenly spread out.
• The particles are then said to be in dynamic
equilibrium
– The particles are in constant random motion
– But there is no net movement of particles

This movement of particles down the


concentration gradient is known as
DIFFUSION.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Defining Diffusion...
DIFFUSION is

the NET MOVEMENT of particles

from a region of HIGHER CONCENTRATION

to a region of LOWER CONCENTRATION

down a CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Defining Diffusion...
DIFFUSION is
the NET MOVEMENT of particles
from a region of HIGHER CONCENTRATION
to a region of LOWER CONCENTRATION
down a CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.

Diffusion stops when particles reach


DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Diffusion of a Dissolved
Substance Investigation 3.1 TB Pg
32
Place a drop of potassium permanganate solution at
the bottom of a beaker of water. Observe the
changes in the colour of the water.
OBSERVATIONS
• Potassium permanganate
particles move up the water
from a region of higher
concentration to regions of
low concentration.
• Over time, a homogeneous
solution will be obtained.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Question!
Copy and complete the sentence...

Diffusion is the NET movement of particles


from a HIGHER concentration to a
LOWER concentration until they reach
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM , whereby the particles
are spread out EVENLY .

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Question!
Answer on a sheet of foolscap paper...

“You can smell food when molecules from the


food enter your nose.”

Explain how the molecules get from the food


to your nose.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Question!
Moths emit chemicals (called pheromones) to
attract a mate.
b) Which process is responsible for the
distribution of these chemicals through the
air?
c) If a moth detects pheromones, how might it
work out which direction they are coming
from?
d) What would be the advantage of a moth
releasing the pheromones on a night when
there was little wind?

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Diffusion across a
Membrane
• Diffusion can occur across a permeable
membrane.
• At the end, there will be equal concentrations
of all ions on both sides of the membrane.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Diffusion across a
Membrane

• Sugar molecules diffuse across the membrane to the


right side.
• Water molecules will diffuse across the membrane to
the left side.
ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Diffusion in Cells
Diffusion is an important way by which oxygen
and carbon dioxide move into and out of cells.

food and oxygen


diffuse in

carbon dioxide and


waste products
diffuse out

An amoeba

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Diffusion in Cells
In the lungs,
• Oxygen diffuses from the lungs into blood
vessels
• Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood vessels
into the lungs

Gaseous exchange in the lungs

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Diffusion in Cells
In the root hair cell,
• Oxygen diffuses into the root hair cell
• Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the root hair
cell

oxygen diffuses in

carbon dioxide
diffuses out

A root hair cell

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
What affects the RATE of
diffusion?
• Steepness of concentration gradient
– The steeper the concentration gradient, the
faster the rate of diffusion

• Heat
– Heat causes particles to gain kinetic energy
and move faster.
– The higher the temperature, the faster the
rate of diffusion.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
What is Osmosis?

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
• Solute molecules cannot diffuse across a partially
permeable membrane.
• Water molecules move from the left arm to the
right arm of the U-tube.
• Level of solution in the left arm falls, while the
level of solution in the right arm rises.
• Net result: both arms contain the same
concentration of solution
ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Defining Osmosis...
OSMOSIS is

the NET MOVEMENT of WATER MOLECULES

from a solution of HIGHER WATER POTENTIAL

to a solution of LOWER WATER POTENTIAL

through a PARTIALLY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
What is Water
Potential?
• Water potential is a measure of the
tendency of water to move from one place
to another.
– A dilute solution has more water molecules
per unit volume than a concentrated
solution, thus it has a higher water potential

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
What is Water
Potential?
• When a partially permeable membrane separates 2
solutions of different water potentials, a water
potential gradient is established.
• Water always moves down a water potential
gradient. partially permeable
membrane

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Demonstrating
Osmosis Investigation 3.2 TB Pg
35
Expected Observation:
• The liquid level
inside the thistle
funnel rises.

thistle funnel

water

sucrose solution

cellophane paper
(partially permeable membrane)

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Demonstrating
Osmosis Investigation 3.2 TB Pg
35
Expected Observation:
• The liquid level
inside the thistle
funnel remains the
same.
thistle funnel

water

water

cellophane paper
(partially permeable membrane)

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Test Yourself! TB Pg 36

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
3 Types of Solutions
• If two solutions have the same water potential,
they are isotonic.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
3 Types of Solutions
• If one solution has a higher water potential than
another, it is hypotonic.
• The solution with lower water potential is
hypertonic.

Note:
The terms apply
only to animal
systems and not
plant systems

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Living
Organisms
• Plant and animal cells are surrounded by a
living, partially permeable cell surface
membrane.
• The enclosed nucleus and cytoplasm are a
complex mixture of various dissolved
substances.
• Osmosis occurs in and out of the cell across
the cell surface membrane.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Animal
Cells
When placed in a solution of high water potential...
• Cell cytoplasm has a lower water potential than
that of the solution outside the cell.
• Water enters the cell by osmosis.
• The animal cell will swell and may even burst.

in solution with high


water potential

cell expands
and bursts

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Animal
Cells
When placed in a solution of the same water
potential...
• There will be no net movement of water across the
cell surface membrane.
• There will be no change in size or shape.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Animal
Cells
When placed in a solution of low water potential...
• Cell cytoplasm has a higher water potential than
that of the solution outside the cell.
• Water leaves the cell by osmosis.
• The animal cell shrinks, forming spikes on the cell
surface membrane. This process is known as
crenation.

in solution with lower


water potential

crenated cell

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in the Hagfish
• The hagfish lives in sea water.
• To prevent water leaving or entering the
fish, its body fluid is as salty as the sea
water in which it lives.
• Its body fluid is considered to be isotonic to
its surrounding fluid.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Plant Cells
When placed in a solution of high water potential...
• Cell sap has a lower water potential than that of
the solution outside the cell.
• Water enters the cell by osmosis.
• The vacuole increases in size and pushes the cell
contents against the cell wall.
• The cell wall is strong and inelastic. It exerts an
opposing pressure as water enters the cell,
preventing it from over-expansion.
• The plant cell expands and becomes turgid. The
cell does not burst because it is protected by the
cell wall.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Plant Cells
When placed in a solution of high water potential...

in solution with high


water potential

cell becomes turgid,


cell wall prevents cell
from bursting

• The turgidity of the cell with water is called


turgor.
• The pressure exerted by the water on the cell wall
is the turgor pressure.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Plant Cells
When placed in a solution of the same water
potential...
• There will be no net movement of water across the
cell surface membrane.
• There will be no change in size or shape.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Plant Cells
When placed in a solution of low water potential...
• Cell sap has a higher water potential than that of
the solution outside the cell.
• Water leaves the cell by osmosis.
• The vacuole decreases in size.
• The rigid cell wall does not change its shape.
• The cytoplasm shrinks away from the cell wall.
This is known as plasmolysis. The cell is said to be
plasmolysed.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Osmosis in Plant Cells
When placed in a solution of low water potential...

in solution with low


water potential

plasmolysed cell

• If not too badly damaged, the cell can be restored


by placing it in water or in a solution with high
water potential.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Turgor in Plants
• If the cell is plasmolysed, its tissues
become flaccid.
• Cells will be killed if they remain
plasmolysed for too long.
• Question: why is it not advisable to add too
much fertiliser around the roots of the
plant?

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Turgor in Plants
• Turgor is important in maintaining the
shape of soft tissues in plants.
• Most leaves and stems are able to remain
firm and erect because of the turgor
pressure within their cells.
• When there is high rate of evaporation of
water from the cells, they lose their
turgidity and the plant wilts.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Turgor in Plants
• Movements of certain plant parts are due to
changes in turgor.
– Certain flowers open during the day and
close at night (and vice versa)
– The leaves of the Mimosa plant fold when
they are touched. Caused by changes in
turgor of the cells.
– Changes in turgor of the guard cell to cause
the opening and closing of stomata.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Test Yourself! TB Pg 37

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Exchange of Materials
in Cells
• Surface area to volume ratio is important
for cell efficiency.
• Cells exchange materials across their cell
surface membranes:
– Enter cell: oxygen, nutrients
– Leave cell: carbon dioxide, waste
• If cells do not exchange materials quickly
enough, they will die.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Surface Area to
Volume Ratio

A B C
Surface area Surface area :
Cube Volume /cm3
/m2 volume
A

C
ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Surface Area to
Volume Ratio
• As the cell becomes bigger, surface area to
volume ratio decreases.
• The largest cell of the same shape has the
smallest surface area to volume ratio.
• The rate of movement of a substance across
the surface of a cell depends on how big
the area of cell surface membrane is.
• The greater the surface area to volume
ratio, the faster the rate of diffusion for a
given concentration gradient.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Surface Area to
Volume Ratio
• The activities that the cell carries out for
survival is known as metabolism.
• Actively growing (or metabolizing) cells are
usually small
– Large surface area to volume ratio
• As the cells grow in size, their metabolism
slows down.
• Cells stop growing when they reach a
maximum size.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Cells for Absorption
• Some cells are specifically adapted to
absorb materials.
• Root hair cell has a long protrusion to
increase absorption of water and mineral
salts from the soil.
• The red blood cell has a flattened
biconcave shape increases surface area to
volume ratio which increases the rate of
oxygen uptake.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Cells for Absorption
• Epithelial cells in the small intestine have
microvilli to increase surface area to volume
ratio of the cell for absorbing digested food
substances.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Active Transport
Living cells are able to absorb substances
against a concentration gradient.

Definition:
Active transport is the process in which
energy is used to move particles of a
substance against a concentration gradient.

ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport
Active Transport
• Only occurs in living cells:
– Living cells respire and release energy which
is used in active transport.
• In plants:
– Root hairs take in dissolved mineral salts by
active transport
– Water enters the cell by osmosis
• In animals:
– Glucose and amino acids are quickly
absorbed by the small intestine by active
transport.
ovement of Substances
Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport