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# Descriptive Statistics for one variable

## Descriptive Statistics Inferential statistics

Statistics
Descriptive Statistics Gives numerical and graphic procedures to summarize a collection of data in a clear and understandable way

Inferential Statistics Provides procedures to draw inferences about a population from a sample

Descriptive Measures
Central Tendency measures. They are
computed to give a center around which the measurements in the data are distributed.

## Variation or Variability measures. They

describe data spread or how far away the measurements are from the center.

## Relative Standing measures. They describe

the relative position of specific measurements in the data.

## Measures of Central Tendency

Mean: Sum of all measurements divided by the number of measurements. Mean = x/n Median: A number such that at most half of the measurements are below it and at most half of the measurements are above it. Mode:
The most frequent measurement in the data.

Example of Mean
Measurements x
3 5 5 1 7 2 6 7 0 4 40

Deviation x - mean
-1 1 1 -3 3 -2 2 3 -4 0 0

MEAN = 40/10 = 4
Notice that the sum of the deviations is 0. Notice that every single observation intervenes in the computation of the mean.

Example of Median
Measurements Measurements Ranked x x 3 0 5 1 5 2 1 3 7 4 2 5 6 5 7 6 0 7 4 7 40 40

## Median: (4+5)/2 = 4.5

Notice that only the two central values are used in the computation.

## The median is not sensible to extreme values

Example of Mode
Measurements x 3 5 5 1 7 2 6 7 0 4

In this case the data have tow modes: 5 and 7 Both measurements are repeated twice

Example of Mode
Measurements x 3 5 1 1 4 7 3 8 3

Mode: 3

## data not to have any mode.

5 mins
Microsoft Word clipart

## Find the mean, median and mode of the following data.

The weekly pocket money for 9 first year pupils was found to be:

3 12 4 6 1 4 2 5 8

Mean 5

Median 4

Mode 4

## Variance (for a sample)

Steps:
Compute each deviation Square each deviation Sum all the squares Divide by the data size (sample size) minus one: n-1

Example of Variance
Measurements Deviations x 3 5 5 1 7 2 6 7 0 4 40 x - mean -1 1 1 -3 3 -2 2 3 -4 0 0 Square of deviations 1 1 1 9 9 4 4 9 16 0 54

Variance = 54/9 = 6
It is a measure of spread. Notice that the larger the deviations (positive or negative) the larger the variance

## The standard deviation

It is defined as the square root of the variance In the previous example Variance = 6 Standard deviation = Square root of the variance = Square root of 6 = 2.45

## Sometimes the data we collect are in group form.

Slope Angle () 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 Total Midpoint (x) 2 7 12 17 22 Frequency (f) 6 12 7 5 0 n = 30 Midpoint x frequency (fx) 12 84 84 85 0 (fx) = 265

Groups of data

Finding the mean is slightly more difficult. We use the midpoint of the group and multiply this by the frequency.

## Slope Angle () 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 Total

Midpoint (x) 2 7 12 17 22

Frequency (f) 6 12 7 5 0 n = 30

265 / 30 =

8.8

## Slope Angle () 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 Total

Midpoint (x) 2 7 12 17 22

Frequency (f) 6 12 7 5 0 n = 30

## Midpoint x frequency (fx) 12 84 84 85 0 (fx) = 265

We cannot find the mode for grouped data but we can find the modal group. The modal group. The modal group is the group that occurs most frequently (ie: 5-9 group).