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LVDT

Linear differential Variable transformer

LVDT
Inductive transducer Translates liner motion into electrical signals

construction

Construction
A single primary winding Two secondary windings wound on a former equal turns placed on either side of primary winding Primary winding connected to AC Movable soft iron core is placed inside the former

Core Made of high permeability, annealed nickel hydrogen gives high sensitivity, low null voltageslotted longitudinally reduces eddy I losses Entire assembly in stainless steel housing

Displacement to be measured is applied to arm attached to soft iron core AC applied to primary 50 to 20 KHz

Working

Working
O/p of secondary individual voltages in S1 = E1 individual voltages in S2 = E2
E= E1 - E2

working
At normal (NULL) position, flux in both coils equal- so E =0 If core is moved left E1 > E2 ( depends on flux linkage). E in phase with primary Voltage If core is moved right E1 < E2 , E out of phase

Change in Voltage is proportional to displacement Position E1 = E2 , null position

Displacement Vs O/p V

Advantages
High range (from 1.25mm to 250 mm) Low power consumption (<1 w) High sensitivity Frictionless device Tolerant to shocks & vibrations Immunized to external effects

Disadvantages
Large displacement required for small o/p Sensitive to stray magnet Performance affected by temp Limited dynamic response

Applications
Primary transducer converts displacement directly to voltage Secondary transducer for measuring pressure, force, weight etc.

Piezoelectric transducer
Uses piezoelectric effect For certain materials, if the dimensions of Xtal changed by applying mechanical stress- emf is induced electro-resistive elements

Natural group Rochelle salt , quartz Synthetic group- lithium sulphate, ethylenediamine tartarate

Mechanical deformation - generates charge Charges appear as Voltage across electrode Magnitude & polarity of charge depends on mag& direction of force applied

Emf = Q/C Q=dXF d=charge density (const. For a given xtal) F= force applied F change the thickness of metal

G= E/t.p E/t electric field intensity G voltage sensitivity

Modes of operation thickness shear

Face shear

Thickness expansion

Transverse expansion

Bimorph arrangement

Properties of Piezo electric Xtal


Stable High o/p Insensitive to temp &humidity

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