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CPL GOSU OANA CPL LINCA VALERIA CPL MARESI NICOLAE CPL RENTEA ALIN CPL SCHLEIER EDWIN

CPL VACARU GABRIEL

The Constitution is the fundamental law of the Romanian state governing, among other things, general principles of state organization,fundamental rights, freedom and duties of citizens and public authorities.

The new Romanian Constitution was adopted in Constituent meeting from 21 November 1991 and entered into force after its approval by national referendum on 8 December 1991.

HISTORY On 1st of July 1866 the first Romanian Constitution was adopted. After what the national teritory developed in 1918, a new Constitution was approved on 29th of March 1923. In the communist period the Constitution had beed modified in 1948, 1952 and in 1965. After the revolution against the comunist regim, a new Constitution came to life in 1991, and it passed through a major revision in 2003, when it reached a final form. Throughout history, there were several Constitutions : 1866 Constitution 1923 Constitution 1948 Constitution 1952 Constitution 1965 Constitution 1991 Constitution 2003 Constitution

The Revision of the Constitution from 2003

The 1991 Constitution has been amended one time, in 2003. Articles were introduced on Integration into the European Union and NATO Accession, bringing the total to 156 in 8 titles. The revised document was adopted by referendum on 1819 October 2003; turnout was slightly above the 50%+1 threshold needed for it to be valid, with 55.7% of 17,842,103 eligible voters showing up.

STRUCTURE
Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003, includes 156 articles divided into 8 units:

TITLE I GENERAL PRINCIPLES TITLE II FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS, FREEDOMS AND DUTIES TITLE III PUBLIC AUTHORITIES TITLE IV THE ECONOMY AND PUBLIC FINANCES TITLE V CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TITLE VI EURO ATLANTIC INTEGRATION TITLE VII REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION TITLE VIII FINAL AND TRANSITORY PROVISIONS

TITLE I - General principles ARTICLE 1 - Romanian State ARTICLE 2 - Sovereignty ARTICLE 3 - Territory ARTICLE 4 - Unity of the people and equality among citizens ARTICLE 5 - Citizenship ARTICLE 6 - Right to identity ARTICLE 7 - Romanians living abroad ARTICLE 8 - Pluralism and political parties ARTICLE 9 - Trade unions, employers' associations, and vocational associations ARTICLE 10 - International relations ARTICLE 11 - International law and national law ARTICLE 12 - National symbols ARTICLE 13 - Official language ARTICLE 14 - Capital

TITLE II - Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties

Common provisions
ARTICLE 15 - Universality ARTICLE 16 - Equality of rights ARTICLE 17 - Romanian citizens while abroad ARTICLE 18 - Aliens and stateless persons ARTICLE 19 - Extradition and expulsion ARTICLE 20 - International treaties on human rights ARTICLE 21 - Free access to justice

Fundamental rights and freedoms


ARTICLE 22 - Right to life, to physical and mental integrity ARTICLE 23 - Individual freedom ARTICLE 24 - Right to defence ARTICLE 25 - Freedom of movement ARTICLE 26 - Personal and family privacy ARTICLE 27 - Inviolability of domicile ARTICLE 28 - Secrecy of correspondence ARTICLE 29 - Freedom of conscience ARTICLE 30 - Freedom of expression ARTICLE 31 - Right to information ARTICLE 32 - Right to education ARTICLE 33 - Access to culture ARTICLE 34 - Right to protection of health ARTICLE 35 - Right to a healthy environment ARTICLE 36 - Right to vote ARTICLE 37 - Right to be elected

ARTICLE 38 - Right to be elected to the European Parliament ARTICLE 39 - Freedom of assembly ARTICLE 40 - Right of association ARTICLE 41 - Labour and social protection of labour ARTICLE 42 - Prohibition of forced labour ARTICLE 43 - Right to strike ARTICLE 44 - Right of private property ARTICLE 45 - Economic freedom ARTICLE 46 - Right of inheritance ARTICLE 47 - Living standard ARTICLE 48 - Family ARTICLE 49 - Protection of children and young people ARTICLE 50 - Protection of disabled persons ARTICLE 51 - Right of petition ARTICLE 52 - Right of a person aggrieved by a public authority ARTICLE 53 - Restriction on the exercise of certain rights or freedoms

Fundamental duties
ARTICLE 54 - Faithfulness towards the country ARTICLE 55 - Defence of the country ARTICLE 56 - Financial contributions ARTICLE 57 - Exercise of rights and freedoms CHAPTER IV - Advocate of the People ARTICLE 58 - Appointment and role ARTICLE 59 - Exercise of powers ARTICLE 60 - Report before Parliament

Advocate of the People ARTICLE 58 - Appointment and role ARTICLE 59 - Exercise of powers ARTICLE 60 - Report before Parliament

TITLE III - Public authorities:Parliament, The President of Romania, The Government, Public administration, Judicial authority, Superior Council of Magistracy, The Public Ministry TITLE IV - Economy and public finance

TITLE V - Constitutional Court


TITLE VI - Euro-Atlantic integration TITLE VII - Revision of the Constitution TITLE VIII - Final and transitory provisions