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Nationality : South African Occupation: Playwright, Novelist Notable work(s): The Conservationist, July's People Notable award(s): Nobel

Prize in Literature1991

Birth date: 20 November 1923 Language : English

Nadine Gordimer

* White female * Architect * Began integrating with Blacks when she was a student. Met Blacks via the White Students Voluntary Service
organisation

Became disillusioned because she believed the work

they were doing should be done by government for Black communities.

Met Blacks then out drinking with Black jazz musicians.


Designed sets for mixed-race drama group, started by White man.

Black African Zulu Was a sculptor. Used to live in the slums of Johannesburg an urban slum kid. Has some success in South Africa He is taken up and hailed as the latest voice in

African art but is then dropped when the gallery owner an the art critic forgot him in the discovery of yet another interpreter of the African soul p186

At the start we learn that he is in jail under the Detention Act. Good friend of Elias. He was part of the drama group with the Narrator and Elias. He was a tubby man. A cheerful, smooth talker. Offered drama scholarship in USA. Seen as suspicious by whites but Black friends celebrated his
success: when someone black got a passport, then, there was a collective sense of pleasure--- p188

* The different statuses between two different races

in South Africa: The two occupations, architect and artist represent white & black differences in the South African culture. The white man is an architect, with more formal education. His position holds more prestige and economic value in society. Elias, a black man, is as sculptor. Though both architect and sculptor can be thought of as artistic, the sculptor's creativity is more innate but the architect holds more power. The Blacks are always imprisoned in the society, a natural thing happen in South Africa.

Apartheid system causes the bonds and relationships between


black and white difficult.

During the Apartheid time, it is socially wrong for a white man to


befriend with another black man what more to be friend of a black men who is a prisoner.

The short story shows that it is difficult for the narrator to

maintain friendship with the nameless Black man (the prisoner) after he lends him money.

This gets in the way of their friendship. All the power is with the whites so they cannot be friends on
equal terms.

1. Time:

* (Between 1948 and 19942) * Early one morning: Elias took his own life.
2. Society:

* Apartheid and racism society: Apartheid in South Africa was a completely

unequal society where the whites grew rich by exploiting the blacks.

1) South Africa * The oppression of black people. A place which prevented black people from growing. 2) Slums (a very poor and crowded area) * Blacks lived in locations which are slums. Elias used to live in the slums of Johannesburg. 3) River of New England Elias drowned himself/ committed suicide.

* It was to denote the separate development of the


races living in South Africa.

* Example:
Exploitation
:- of persons of colour for the benefit of a privileged white elite(discrimination). :- Elias failed to obtain a passport because it is difficult for black people to gain passports.

Racism

*Racial discrimination where whites oppressed blacks


with their social status and education.

*The two different occupations:


- Architect (white) represents formal education and their higher status in society. - Sculptor (black) represents non-formal education and their lower status in society.

* White uses occupation to show their superiority.

* http://www.scribd.com/doc/83607885/AfricaEmergent