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WiMAX for Broadband Wireless Access

By:

Karim M. El Defrawy ICS

UCI-2005

Outline

What is WiMAX 802.16 Introduction 802.16 MAC Highlights 802.16 Reference Model MAC Convergence Sub-Layer (CS) MAC Common Part Sub-Layer (CPS) MAC Privacy Sub-Layer (PS) Questions

What is WiMAX?

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is the common name associated to the IEEE 802.16a/REVd/e standards.

These standards are issued by the IEEE 802.16 subgroup that originally covered the Wireless Local Loop technologies with radio spectrum from 10 to 66 GHz.

IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction

IEEE 802.16 (2001)

Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access System MAC and PHY Specifications for 10 – 66 GHZ (LoS)

One PHY: Single Carrier Connection-oriented, TDM/TDMA MAC, QoS, Privacy

IEEE 802.16a (January 2003)

Amendment to 802.16, MAC Modifications and Additional PHY Specifications for 2 – 11 GHz (NLoS)

Three PHYs: OFDM, OFDMA, Single Carrier

Additional MAC functions: OFDM and OFDMA PHY support, Mesh topology support, ARQ

IEEE 802.16d (July 2004)

Combines both IEEE 802.16 and 802.16a Some modifications to the MAC and PHY

IEEE 802.16e (2005?)

Amendment to 802.16-2004 MAC Modifications for limited mobility

IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction

Coverage range up to 50km and speeds up to 70Mbps(shared among users).

IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction Coverage range up to 50km and speeds up to 70Mbps(shared among users).

IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction

IEEE 802.16 -- Introduction Source: WiMAX, making ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality, White Paper, Alcatel.

Source: WiMAX, making ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality, White Paper, Alcatel.

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- Highlights

WirelessMAN: Point-to-Multipoint and optional mesh topology

Connection-oriented

Multiple Access: DL TDM & TDMA, UL TDMA;UL OFDMA & TDMA, DL OFDMA & TDMA (Optional)

PHY considerations that affect the MAC

Duplex: TDD, FDD, FDX FDD BS and SS, HDX FDD SS Adaptive burst profiles (Modulation and FEC) on both DL and UL

Protocol-independent core (ATM, IP, Ethernet) Flexible QoS offering (CBR, rt-VBR, nrt-VBR, BE) Strong security support

Reference Model

Reference Model

Adaptive PHY

Adaptive PHY Source: Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless, Technical White Paper, Intel.

Source: Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless, Technical White Paper, Intel.

Adaptive Burst Profiles

Burst profile: Modulation and FEC

On DL, multiple SSs can associate the same DL burst

On UL, SS transmits in an given time slot with a specific burst

Dynamically assigned according to link conditions

Burst by burst Trade-off capacity vs. robustness in real time

Duplex Scheme Support

The duplex scheme is Usually specified by regulatory bodies, e.g., FCC

Time-Division Duplex (TDD)

Downlink & Uplink time share the same RF channel Dynamic asymmetry does not transmit & receive simultaneously (low cost)

Frequency-Division Duplex (FDD)

Downlink & Uplink on separate RF channels

Full Duplexing (FDX): can Tx and Rx simultaneously;

Half-duplexing (HDX) SSs supported (low cost)

IEEE 802.16 MAC

OFDM PHY TDD Frame Structure

Time Frame n-1 Frame n Frame n+1 Adaptive DL Subframe UL subframe DL TDM UL TDMA
Time
Frame n-1
Frame n
Frame n+1
Adaptive
DL Subframe
UL subframe
DL
TDM
UL TDMA
DL
DL
DL
pre.
FCH
...
...
burst 1
burst 2
burst n
pre.
UL burst 1
pre.
UL burst m
DL
UL
DCD
UCD
MAP
MAP
opt.
opt.

Broadcast Conrol msgs

IEEE 802.16 MAC

OFDM PHY FDD Frame Structure

Time Frame n-1 Frame n Frame n+1 DL Subframe DL TDM DL TDMA DL DL DL
Time
Frame n-1
Frame n
Frame n+1
DL Subframe
DL TDM
DL TDMA
DL
DL
DL
DL
DL
...
...
pre.
FCH
pre.
pre.
burst 1
burst 2
burst k
burst k+1
burst n
Broadcast
Control Msgs
DL
UL
DCD
UCD
MAP
MAP
opt.
opt.
UL subframe
UL TDMA
UL MAP for next
MAC frame UL
bursts
pre.
UL burst 1
...
pre.
UL burst m

FDD MAPs Time Relevance

  • DL UL

DL UL MAP MAP MAP MAP DOWNLINK UPLINK frame
DL
UL
MAP
MAP
MAP
MAP
DOWNLINK
UPLINK
frame
  • Broadcast

  • Half Duplex Terminal #1

  • Full Duplex Capable User

  • Half Duplex Terminal #2

IEEE 802.16 MAC addressing and Identifiers

SS has 48-bit IEEE MAC address BS has 48-bit base station ID

Not a MAC address 24-bit operator indicator

16-bit connection ID (CID) 32-bit service flow ID (SFID) 16-bit security association ID (SAID)

IEEE 802.16 MAC – Convergence Sub-Layer (CS)

ATM Convergence Sub-Layer:

Support for VP/VC switched connections Support for end-to-end signaling of dynamically created connections ATM header suppression Full QoS support

Packet Convergence Sub-Layer:

Initial support for Ethernet, VLAN, IPv4, and

IPv6

Payload header suppression Full QoS support

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CS – Packet Convergence Sub-Layer

Functions:

Classification: mapping the higher layer PDUs (Protocol Data Units) into appropriate MAC connections

Payload header suppression (optional)

MAC SDU (Service Data Unit), i.e, CS PDU, formatting

MAC SDU = CS PDU

PHSI

Packet PDU (e.g., IP packet, Ethernet Packet)

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CS – Packet Convergence Sub-Layer  Functions:  Classification: mapping the higher

Payload Header Suppression Index Optional, Depending on upper layer protocol

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS

– MAC PDU Format

MAC PDU

msb

lsb

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS – MAC PDU Format MAC PDU msb lsb Generic MAC Header

Generic MAC

Header

(6 bytes)

CRC

(optional)

payload (optional)

Generic MAC Header Format (Header Type (HT) = 0)

BW Req. Header Format (Header Type (HT) =1)

             

LEN

         

H

T

E

C

Type (6 bits)

rs

v

EKS

(2)

rs

v

  • I msb

(3)

  • C E

H

T

C

Type (6 bits)

BW Req.

msb (8)

 

LEN lsb (8)

 

CID msb (8)

 

BWS Req. lsb (8)

CID msb (8)

 

CID lsb (8)

 

HCS (8)

   

CID lsb (8)

HCS (8)

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS -- Three Types of MAC PDUs

Data MAC PDUs

HT = 0

Payloads are MAC SDUs/segments, i.e., data from upper layer (CS PDUs)

Transmitted on data connections

Management MAC PDUs

HT =0

Payloads are MAC management messages or IP packets encapsulated in MAC CS PDUs

Transmitted on management connections

BW Req. MAC PDUs

HT =1; and no payload, i.e., just a Header

IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS

– Data Packet Encapsulations

 

Ethernet Packet

 
 
 

P

 

H

Ethernet Packet

SI

 

HT

 

MAC PDU Payload

CRC

Packet PDU (e.g., Ethernet)

CS PDU (i.e., MAC SDU)

MAC PDU

FEC block 1 FEC Block 2 FEC Block 3 FEC OFDM OFDM PHY Burst Preamble symbol
FEC block 1
FEC Block 2
FEC Block 3
FEC
OFDM
OFDM
PHY Burst
Preamble
symbol
symbol
(e.g., TDMA burst)
1
2
IEEE 802.16 MAC -- CPS – Data Packet Encapsulations Ethernet Packet P H Ethernet Packet SI

......

......

FEC block m OFDM symbol n
FEC block m
OFDM
symbol
n

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

-- MAC Management Connections

Each SS has 3 management connections in each direction:

Basic Connection:

short and time-urgent MAC management messages MAC mgmt messages as MAC PDU payloads

Primary Management connection:

longer and more delay tolerant MAC mgmt messages MAC mgmt messages as MAC PDU payloads

Secondary Management Connection:

Standard based mgmt messages, e.g., DHCP, SNMP, …etc IP packets based CS PDU as MAC PDU payload

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS – MAC Management Messages

MAC mgmt message format:

8 bits

mgmt

 

msg

MAC mgmt msg payload

HD

MAC mgmt msg can be sent on: Basic connections; Primary mgmt connection; Broadcast connection; and initial ranging connections

41 MAC mgmt msgs specified in 802.16

The TLV (type/length/value) encoding scheme is used in MAC mgmt msg, e.g., in UCD msg for UL burst profiles,

(type=1, length=1, value=1) QPSK modulation (type=1, length=1, value=2) 16QAM modulation (type=1, length=1, value=3) 64QAM modulation

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS – MAC PDU Transmission

MAC PDUs are transmitted in PHY Bursts The PHY burst can contain multiple FEC blocks MAC PDUs may span FEC block boundaries Concatenation Packing Segmentation Sub-headers

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS – MAC PDU Concatenation

Multiple MAC PDUs are concatenated into the same PHY burst

MAC PDU 1 MAC PDU 2 ...... HT MAC PDU Payload CRC HT MAC PDU Payload
MAC PDU 1
MAC PDU 2
......
HT
MAC PDU Payload
CRC
HT
MAC PDU Payload
CRC
......
FEC block 1
FEC Block 2
FEC Block 3
FEC
OFDM
OFDM
PHY Burst
......
Preamble
symbol
symbol
(e.g., TDMA burst)
1
2

MAC PDU k

   

MAC PDU

 

HT

Payload

CRC

MAC PDU HT Payload CRC FEC block m
 

FEC block m

OFDM symbol n
OFDM
symbol
n

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS – MAC PDU Fragmentation

A MAC SDU can be fragmented into multiple segments, each segment is encapsulated into one MAC PDU

MAC SDU Fragmentation Sub-Header (8 bits) MAC SDU MAC SDU MAC SDU seg-1 seg-2 seg-3 F
MAC SDU
Fragmentation
Sub-Header
(8 bits)
MAC SDU
MAC SDU
MAC SDU
seg-1
seg-2
seg-3
F
F
MAC PDU
F
MAC PDU
HT
S
CRC
HT
S
CRC
Payload
HT
S
MAC PDU Payload
CRC
Payload
H
H
H
FEC block
......
FEC Block
FEC block
......
FEC Block
FEC
1
m1
1
m2
OFDM
OFDM
OFDM
OFDM
......
......
Pre.
symbol
symbol
Pre.
symbol
symbol
1
n1
1
n2
PHY Burst
PHY Burst

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS – MAC PDU Packing

Packing with fixed size MAC SDUs (no packing sub-header is needed)

HT CRC MAC PDU Payload MAC SDU 1 SDU 2 MAC ...... MAC SDU k
HT
CRC
MAC PDU Payload
MAC
SDU 1
SDU 2
MAC
......
MAC
SDU k

Fixed size MSDUs, e.g., ATM Cells, on the same connection

Packing with variable size MAC SDUs (Packing Sub-Heade is neeeded)

Variable size

MAC SDU or Packing MAC SDU or seg 2 seg. 1 MAC SDU or seg n
MAC SDU or
Packing
MAC SDU or seg 2
seg.
1
MAC SDU or
seg n
Sub-Heder
(16 bits)
MSDUs or MSDU
segments, e.g.,
IP packets, on
the same
connection
HT
PSH
PSH
......
PSH
CRC

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

QoS

Three components of 802.16 QoS

Service flow QoS scheduling Dynamic service establishment Two-phase activation model (admit first, then activate)

Service Flow

A unidirectional MAC-layer transport service characterized by a set of QoS parameters, e.g., latency, jitter, and throughput assurances

Identified by a 32-bit SFID (Service Flow ID)

Three types of service flows

Provisioned: controlled by network management system

Admitted: the required resources reserved by BS, but not active

Active: the required resources committed by the BS

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Uplink Service Classes

UGS: Unsolicited Grant Services rtPS: Real-time Polling Services nrtPS: Non-real-time Polling Services BE: Best Effort

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Uplink Services: UGS

UGS: Unsolicited Grant Services

For CBR or CBR-like services, e.g., T1/E1.

The BS scheduler offers fixed size UL BW grants on a real-time periodic basis.

The SS does not need to send any explicit UL BW req.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Uplink Services: rtPS

rtPS: Real-time Polling Services

For rt-VBR-like services, e.g., MPEG video.

The BS scheduler offers real-time, periodic, UL BW request opportunities.

The SS uses the offered UL BW req. opportunity to specify the desired UL BW grant.

The SS cannot use contention-based BW req.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Uplink Services: nrtPS

nrtPS: non-real-time polling services

For nrt-VBR-like services, such as, bandwidth-intensive file transfer.

The BS scheduler shall provide timely (on a order of a second or less) UL BW request opportunities.

The SS can use contention-based BW req. opportunities to send BW req.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Uplink Services: BE

BE: Best Effort

For best-effort traffic, e.g., HTTP, SMTP.

The SS uses the contention-based BW request opportunities.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Bandwidth Grant

BW grants are per Subscriber Station:

Allows real­time reaction to QoS need, i.e., SS may re­ distribute bandwidth among its connections, maintaining QoS and service­level agreements

Lower overhead, i.e., less UL­MAP entries compare to grant per connection

Off­ loading base station’s work

Requires intelligent subscriber station to redistribute the allocated BW among connections

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– BW Request/Grant Mechanisms

Implicit requests (UGS): No actual requests BW request messages, i.e., BW req. header

Sends in either a contention­based BW req. slot or a regular UL allocation for the SS;he special B

Requests up to 32 KB with a single message Request Incremental or aggregate, as indicated by MAC header–

Piggybacked request (for non-UGS services only)

Presented in Grant Management (GM) sub­header in a data MAC PDU of the same UL connection is always incremental Up to 32 KB per request for the CID

Poll-Me bit

Presented in the GM sub­header on a UGS connection request a bandwidth req. opportunity for non­UGS services

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS -- Contention UL Access

Two types of Contention based UL slots

Initial Ranging

Used for new SS to join the system Requires a long preamble

BW Request

Used for sending BW req Short preamble

Collision Detection and Resolution

Detection: SS does not get the expected response in a given time

Resolution: a truncated binary exponential backoff window

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS UL Sub-Frame Structure

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS UL Sub-Frame Structure Source: http://www.cygnuscom.com/pdf/WP_PN_Article.pdf

Source: http://www.cygnuscom.com/pdf/WP_PN_Article.pdf

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Ranging

Ranging is a process of acquiring the correct timing offset, and PHY parameters, such as, Tx power level, frequency offset, etc. so that the SS can communicate with the BS correctly.

BS performs measurements and

feedback. SS performs necessary adjustments.

Two types of Ranging:

Initial ranging: for a new SS to join the system Periodic ranging (also called maintenance ranging): dynamically maintain a good RF link.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – CPS

– Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)

A Layer-2 sliding-window based flow control mechanism. Per connection basis. Only effective to non-real-time applications. Uses a 11-bit sequence number field.

Uses CRC-32 checksum of MAC PDU to check data errors.

Maintain the same fragmentation structure for Retransmission.

Optional.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – Privacy Sub-layer (PS)

Two Major Functions:

Secures over-the-air transmissions Protects from theft of service

Two component protocols:

Data encryption protocol

A client/server model based Key management protocol (Privacy Key Management, or PKM)

IEEE 802.16 MAC – PS -- Security Associations

A set of privacy information, e.g., encryption keys, used encryption algorithm

Three types of Security Associations (SAs)

Primary SA: established during initial registration Static SA: provisioned within the BS Dynamic SA: dynamically created on the fly

Identified by a 16-bit SAID Connections are mapped to SAs

IEEE 802.16 MAC – PS

-- Multi-level Keys and Their Usage

Public Key

Contained in X.509 digital certificate Issued by SS manufacturers Used to encrypt AK

Authorization Key (AK)

Provided by BS to SS at authorization Used to derive KEK

Key Encryption Key (KEK)

Derived from AK Used to encrypt TEK

Traffic Encryption Key (TEK)

Provided by BS to SS at key exchange Used to encrypt traffic data payload

IEEE 802.16 MAC – PS -- Data Encryption

Use DES (Data Encryption Standard) in

CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode with IV (Initialization Vector). CBC IV is calculated from

IV parameter in TEK keying info; and PHY synchronization field in DL-MAP.

Only MAC PDU payload (including sub- headers) is encrypted.

MAC PDU headers are unencrypted.

Management messages are unencrypted.

IEEE 802.16 MAC – one big item is out of scope

Scheduler

Questions ??

References

IEEE802.16-2004

Alcatel White Paper: WiMAX, making ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality

Intel White Paper: Understanding WiMAX and 3G for Portable/Mobile Broadband Wireless

WiMAX Forum: www.wimaxforum.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMax

IEEE 802.16 MAC – commonly used terms

BS – Base Station

SS – Subscriber Station, (i.e., CPE)

DL – Downlink, i.e. from BS to SS UL – Uplink, i.e. from SS to BS

FDD – Frequency Division Duplex TDD – Time Division Duplex TDMA – Time Division Multiple Access TDM – Time Division Multiplexing OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access QoS – Quality of Service