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Global Market Management

SDH - Basics
Copyright by Christoph Mhlhuser, ACTERNA Germany Box 1262, D-72795 Eningen u.A. e-mail: christoph.muehlhaeuser@acterna.com http://www.acterna.com

All rights reserved. No parts of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted, or translated without the written permission of the publisher.

Page 2

Content
1. Current transmission technologies
1.1 A brief history of transmission systems 1.2 Principle of Plesiochronous Operation 1.3 Stuffing techniques 1.4 Problems of PDH

2. The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)


2.1 Synchronous Network Structure 2.2 Layered model of the SDH network 2.3 Principles of SDH 2.4 Network node interface

3. Bit rates, frame structure and interface


3.1 ITU-T and SONET multiplex structure

3.2 STM-1 frame structure


3.3 STM-N frame structure

Page 3

Content
4. Basic elements of STM-1
4.1 Digital signal sections 4.2 The Section Overhead (SOH)

4.3 The Path Overhead (POH)


4.4 Pointer activities 4.5 Mapping procedures

5. SDH Network Elements


5.1 Add & Drop Multiplexer
5.2 Crossconnect 5.3 Synchronous Line Equipment 5.4 SDH Topology

6. Synchronization architecture in SDH


6.1 Clock hierarchy 6.2 Evaluation methods and standards 6.3 Synchronisation of SDH Network Elements 6.4 Holdover mode

6.5 Recommendations for Synchronisation

Page 4

Content
7. Monitoring and maintenance functionality
7.1 Bit error monitoring with BIP-N test 7.2 SDH Maintenance Signal Interactions 7.3 Jitter and Wander 7.4 Network resilence 7.5 Telecommunication Management Network (TMN)

9. Future Trends in SDH


10. Lets summarize

Page 5

Current Transmission Technologies

Page 6

The Telephone System

ANALOGUE

DIGITAL

ANALOGUE

Page 7

Sampling

Audio Signal
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
time

Sampler Output

Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) signal

T1

T2

T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

time

Page 8

Quantization Level 112 96 80 64 48 32

Non-Linear Quantization and Encoding


digital codes
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

1/2V
1/4V 1/8V 1/16V 1/32V 1/64 V
0 0 0 0 X X X X 0 0 0 1 X X X X 0 0 1 0 X X X X

-V In accordance with CCITTs A-law

Page 9

PCM Signal Data Rate

8000 samples per sec

8 bits per sample

= 64kbit/s

Page 10

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

Page 11

PDH Systems Worldwide


Japan
5. 397200 kbit/s
x4

USA

Europe
564992 kbit/s
x4

4.

97728 kbit/s
x3

274176 kbit/s
x3 x6

139264 kbit/s
x4

3.

32064 kbit/s
x5

44736 kbit/s
x7

34368 kbit/s
x4

6312 kbit/s 2. order


x4 x3

8448 kbit/s
x4

1544 kbit/s primary rate


x 24

2048 kbit/s

x 30/31

64 kbit/s

Page 12

PDH Multiplex / Demultiplex


2048 kbit/s (+/-50ppm)
1

64 kbit/s Data Signals

8448 kbit/s (+/-30ppm)


1

30

DSMX 64k/2
1

34 368 kbit/s (+/-20ppm)


1

0.3 to 3.1 kHz AF signals

139264 kbit/s (+/-15ppm)

30

PCMX 30 15 kHz Sound Program Signals


1 5
4

DSMX 34/140

PCMX 30

DSMX 8/34 Channel Capacity: 64 x 30 = 1920

64 30

DSMX 2/8

Page 13

2 Mbit/s Frame Structures


2.048 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit = 256 bit in 125s
signalling information signalling information

encoded voice / data signals


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

encoded voice / data signals


time slots

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Page 14

2 Mbit/s Frame Structures


2.048 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit = 256 bit in 125s
signalling information signalling information

encoded voice / data signals


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

encoded voice / data signals


time slots

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Si

FAS (frames 0,2,4...)

(M)

Si

Sa Sa 4 5

Sa Sa 6 7

Sa NFAS 8 (frames 1,3,5...)

Si: Reserved for international use Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm) A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm)

Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based data links (point-to-point applications) FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011) NFAS: Non frame alignment signal

Page 15

2 Mbit/s Frame Structures


2.048 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit = 256 bit in 125s
signalling information signalling information

encoded voice / data signals


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

encoded voice / data signals


time slots

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Si

FAS (frames 0,2,4...)

0 0 MFAS

Y x x NMFAS

frame 0

(M)

Si

Sa Sa 4 5

Sa Sa 6 7

Sa NFAS 8 (frames 1,3,5...)

a b c d signalling subscr. n

a b c d signalling subscr. n+15

Si: Reserved for international use Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm) A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm) Y: Remote MF alarm (1=Alarm) E: CRC error indication (0=Error) Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based data links (point-to-point applications) FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011) NFAS: Not frame alignment signal

Page 16

2 Mbit/s Frame Structures


2.048 kbit/s Multiframe, ITU-T G.704
fr 15 fr 0 fr 1 fr 2 fr 3 fr 4 sub multiframe 1 fr 5 multiframe fr 6 fr 7 fr 8 fr 9 fr 10 fr 11 fr 12 fr 13 fr 14 fr 15 sub multiframe 2

2.048 kbit/s frame: 32x8 bit = 256 bit in 125s

encoded voice / data signals


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

encoded voice / data signals


time slots

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Si

FAS (frames 0,2,4...)

0 0 MFAS

0 d

Y x x NMFAS

frame 0

Si (M)

Sa Sa 4 5

Sa Sa 6 7

Sa NFAS 8 (frames 1,3,5...)

a b c signalling subscr. n

a b c d signalling subscr. n+15

sub multiframe 2 sub multiframe 1

Time slot 0 of CRC multiframe:


0 FAS 1 NFAS 6 FAS 7 NFAS 8 FAS
9 NFAS

C1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa C4 1 C1 1 0 1 0 1 0 A 0 A 1 1 0 1 1 Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa 1 1 0 1 1 Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa

256 x 8 bit = 2048 bit

Si: Reserved for international use Sa4: Non urgent Alarm (0=Alarm) A: Remote alarm (1=urgent Alarm) Y: Remote MF alarm (1=Alarm) E: CRC error indication (0=Error) Sa4 to Sa8: Spare bits or used for message based data links (point-to-point applications) FAS: Frame alignment signal (0011011) NFAS: Not frame alignment signal

14 FAS 15 NFAS

256 x 8 bit C4 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 2048 bit

E2 1 A Sa Sa Sa Sa Sa

Page 17

Plesiochronous Hierarchies Frame Structures


8.448 kbit/s; frame length 848 bit; 100.4 us; ITU-T G.742
10 2 200 4 208 4 208 4 4 204

1a 2a 3a 4a

1b 2b 3b 4b

1c 2c 3c 4c

s1 s2 s3 s4

1 1

A N

A N 1a,b,c S

: Alarm Bit : National Spare Bit : Stuffing Control Bit : Stuffing Bit

34.368 kbit/s; frame length 1536 bit; 44.7 us; ITU-T G.751
10 2 372 4 380 4 380 4 4 376

1a 2a 3a 4a

1b 2b 3b 4b

1c 2c 3c 4c

s1 s2 s3 s4

1 1

0 A

N Page 18

Plesiochronous Hierarchies Frame Structures


139.264 kbit/s; frame length 2928 bit; 21 us; ITU-T G.751
12 4 472 4 484 4 484 4 484 4 484 4 4 480

1a 2a 3a 4a

1b 2b 3b 4b

1c 2c 3c 4c

1d 2d 3d 4d

1e 2e 3e 4e s1 s2 s3 s4

1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 A NN N

A N 1a,b,c,d S

: Alarm Bit : National Spare Bit : Stuffing Control Bit : Stuffing Bit

Page 19

PDH Maintenance Signals

LOS LOF AIS

PDH Equipment

AIS

D-Bit

BER 10-3 BER 10-6


D-Bit N-Bit

PDH Equipment

AIS

Page 20

Plesiochronous Drop & Insert


140 Mbit/s main
OLTU OLTU OLTU 34 - 140 8 - 34 2-8 OLTU 34 - 140 8 - 34 2-8

140 Mbit/s

stand-by
34 - 140 8 - 34 2-8 34 - 140 8 - 34 2-8

1,2 ................. 64

1,2 ................. 64

Line Terminating Unit

Drop & Insert Station

Line Terminating Unit

Page 21

The Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

Page 22

Why SDH ?
Simpler multiplexing
(low SDH level can be directly identified from higher SDH level)

Simple D&I of traffic channels


(direct access to lower level systems without synchronization)

Allows mixing of ANSI and ETSI PDH


systems

SDH is open for new applications


(It can carry PDH, ATM, HDTV, MAN, IP...)

SDH provides TMN (ECCs)


(for centralized network control)
Page 23

Synchronous Network Structure


140Mbit/s 2Mbit/s

TM

STM-1

ADM
STM-1, STM-4 2Mbit/s 34Mbit/s

ATM Switch

ADM
STM-1

STM-4/-16/ ADM -64

140Mbit/s 34Mbit/s 8Mbit/s 2Mbit/s

DXC
LAN ADM : Add Drop Multiplexer DXC : Digital Cross Connect TM : Terminal Multiplexer DSC: Digital Switching Center LAN: Local Area Network 2Mbit/s STM-1 / STS-3c Gateway to SONET 34Mbit/s 140Mbit/s STM-1 STM-4

DSC

Page 24

Layered Model of the SDH Network


......
Packet Network

Telephone Network
Lower Order Path Layer Higher Order Path Layer

VC-11

VC-12

VC-2

VC-3

VC-3

VC-4

Transmission

Multiplex section layer Regenerator section layer Physical media layer

Section Layer

Page 25

Media Layer

SDH Transport Layer

Cicuit Layer

Path Denominations
Lower Order Path Higher Order Path Multiplex Section Regenerator Sections SMX Reg SMX

VC-12

VC-3

VC-4

VC-4

VC-3

VC-12

VC-2 VC-1

VC-4 VC-3

VC-4 VC-3

VC-2 VC-1

STM-n STM-n RSOH RSOH


STM-n MSOH

VC-4/3 POH VC-1/2/3 POH

Page 26

Network Node Interface (NNI)

SDH
MUX / DEMUX

CC

SDH
Reg.

SDH
MUX / DEMUX

PDH

PDH

NNI

NNI

NNI

The Network Node Interface (NNI) specifications are necessary to enable interconnection of synchronous digital network elements for transport of payloads

ITU-T Rec.: G.707 Synchronous Multiplex Structure G.703 Electrical characteristic G.957 Optical interface characteristic

Page 27

Bit Rates, Frame Structure and Interfaces in SDH

Page 28

SDH and SONET are International Standards


ATM: 149.760 kbit/s
STM-N STS-3N AUG AU-4
STS-3C

VC-4
STS-3C SPE

C-4 x3 TUG-3 x7 C-3 x7

E4: 139.264 kbit/s

x1

TU-3

VC-3

ATM: 48,384 kbit/s

x3 x1 STM-0 STS-1 AU-3 STS-1 VC-3


STS-1 SPE

DS3: 44.736 kbit/s E3 : 34.368 kbit/s DS2: 6.312 kbit/s

TUG-2 VT group

x1

TU-2 VT-6 TU-12

VC-2
VT-SPE

C-2

Pointer processing Multiplexing Aligning Mapping


x4 VC-12
VT-SPE

x3

VT-2

C-12

E1: 2.048 kbit/s

TU-11 VT-1.5

VC-11
VT-SPE

C-11

DS1: 1.544 kbit/s

SONET

BELLCORE GR.253 ANSI T1.105

SDH

ITU-T G.707

SDH

ETSI

Page 29

STM-1 Frame Structure


270 Columns (Bytes)
1 1 9 270

transmit row by row

RSOH
3 4 5 AU Pointer

Payload
(transport capacity)

MSOH
9

RSOH: Regenerator section overhead MSOH: Multiplex section overhead Payload: Area for information transport Transport capacity of one Byte: 64 kbit/s Frame capacity: 270 x 9 x 8 x 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/s Frame repetition time: 125 s

Page 30

STM-1 Frame Structure


270 Columns (Bytes) 1 1 3 4 5 9 270

RSOH AU Pointer

AU-4

VC-4 VC-4 POH MSOH C-4

Page 31

Higher SDH Bitrates


STM-1 #1 11111 22222 33333 44444 B1 B2 SOH termination B1 B2 New SOH

STM-1 #2 STM-1 #3

STM-4
12341234123412 . . .

STM-1 #4

The STM-4/16/64 bit rate is obtained as integer multiples of the STM-1 tributary bit rate. Clock offset at the tributary side is taken into consideration by pointer adaptation on the STM-n output signal.

Page 32

STM-4 Frame Structure


36 bytes
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0 Z0 Z0 X X X X X X X X B1 D1 E1 D2 F1 X X X X X X X X X X X X D3 X

Payload

A U Pointers
B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D 10 S1 D5 D8 D 11 M1 K2 D5 D9 D 12 E2 X X X X X X X X X X X X

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

#1 #2 #3 #4

B1 and B2 bytes are being recalculated Bytes E1, F1, K1, K2, D1 to D3 and D4 to D12 are taken from tributary #1
Page 33

Basic Elements of STM-1

Page 34

Synchronous Network
Path
Multiplex Section Reg. Section Multiplex Section Regenerator Section Regenerator Section

SDH
MUX / DEMUX

CC

SDH
Reg. back-up line

SDH
MUX / DEMUX

PDH

clock clock

clock

Parity Bytes

B2 B1

B2 B1 B3 B1

Comm. Channels

E2, D4 ... D12

E1, F1, D1 ... D3

Page 35

Embedded Overhead Bytes


STM-1 SOH A1 A1 B1 D1 H1 Y B2 B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 A1 A2 A2 E1 D2 Y H2 1 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 A2 J0 F1 D3 1 H3 K2 D6 D9 D12 X X H3 X X H3 VC-3/4 POH J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1
RSOH
Pointer

AU - PTR

VC-11/12/ 2 POH V5 J2 N2 K4

M 1 E2

MSOH

P O H

Media dependent bytes X Reserved for national use SOH: Section overhead POH: Path overhead

Payload

The overheads (SOH, POH) are used for maintenance and supervision of the SDH transmission network.
Page 36

Functions of Regenerator Section Overhead


A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 E1 D2 AU - Pointer B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D5 D7 D8 D10 D11 S1 M1 A1 B1 D1 J0 F1 D3 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2

Frame Alignment
(A1, A2)

Section Trace
(J0 Identficationof regenerator source)

Parity check
(B1 calculated by regenerator and multiplexers)

Data communication channels


(D1...D3, F1 between regenerators)

Voice communication channels


(E1 between regenerators)
Page 37

Functions of Multiplexer Section Overhead


A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 E1 D2 AU - Pointer B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D5 D7 D8 D10 D11 S1 M1 A1 B1 D1 J0 F1 D3 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2

Parity check (B2) Alarm information (K2)

Remote error indication (M1,K2)

Automatic protection switching (K1, K2 Bytes) Data communication channels


(D4 to D12 between multiplexers)

Clock source information (S1) Voice communications channels


(E2 between multiplexers)
Page 38

Functions of Path Overhead


VC-3/4 POH J1 B3 C2 VC-11/12/2 G1 POH F2 V5 H4 J2 F3 N2 K4 K4 N1

Parity check
B3, V5/ BIP-2 calculated by path terminating point

Alarm and performance information


(V5, G1)

Structure of the VC
Signal label C2

Multiframe indication for TUs (H4) User communications channel


between path elements (F2, F3)

Identification of the Path Source


(Path Trace J1, J2)
Page 39

Functions and Characteristics of the Individual Elements of NNI


The Container (C)
Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH) Synchronous to the STM-1 Bitrate adaptation is done via a positive stuffing procedure Adaptation of synchronous tributaries by fixed stuffing bits Bit by bit stuffing

The Virtual Container (VC)


Formation of the Container by adding of a POH (Path Overhead) Transport as a unit through the network (SDH) A VC containing several VCs has also a pointer area

Page 40

Functions and Characteristics of the Individual Elements of the NNI


The Tributary Unit (TU)
Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC

The Tributary Unit Group (TUG)


Combines several TUs for a new VC

The Administrative Unit (AU)


Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at last

The Syncronous Transport Module Level 1


(STM-1)

Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to Aus Clock justification through positive-zero-negative stuffing in the AU pointer area Byte by byte stuffing
Page 41

Overhead Byte Functionality


SOH A1, A2 Frame synchronisation B1, B2 Parity bytes for transmission error monitoring J0 Regenerator section trace D1... D3 Regenerator section DCC D4.. D12 Multiplex section DCC E1, E2 Orderwire for voice communication F1 User channel for maintenance purposes (data, voice) K1, K2 Automatic protection switching (APS) S1 Synchronisation status message M1 MS-REI (remote error idication) J1 B3 C2 G1 F2, F3 H4 K3 N1 V5 J2 N2 K4 Higher order path trace Path parity byte for error monitoring Signal Label (composition of payload) Path status and performance Path user channels Payload specific byte Automatic protection switching (APS) Network operator byte (Tandem Connection Monit.) Error check, path status, signal label Lower order path trace Network operator byte (Tandem Connection Monit.) Page 42 Automatic protection switching (APS)

VC-3/4 POH

VC-1/2 POH

The way of integrating PDH signals into STM-1


Plesiochronous signal

140Mbit/s
C4

Container
Path Overhead

Virtual Container
Pointer

VC-4

Administrative Unit
Section Overhead

AU-4

Synchronous Transport Module

STM-1
Page 43

Pointers
The pointer technology provides a means to accommodate timing differences at SDH networks. The pointer indicates the start of the payload within a STM1frame.
STM-1

AU-Pointer VC-4 POH


TUPTR

VC-4

VC-12 VC-12 POH

Page 44

Use of the AU-4 Pointer Area, Coding


H1 Y Y H2 1 1 H3 H3 H3

NDF, mapping struc, pointer inc/dec

Pointer inc/dec IDIDIDID J1

Opportunity for negative stuffing (more capacity)

Opportunity for positive stuffing (less capacity)

C4 payload Pointer interpretation : H1 byte N New data flag (NDF) disabled : New data flag enabled : AU/TU type AU-4/TU-3 : AU/TU type AU-3/TU-3 : AU-4 pointer 0...782 : TU-3 pointer 0...764 : Null pointer indication (NPI) : 0 1 N N 1 0 1 0 N 0 1 S S I D H2 byte

1 0

0 1
X X X X 1 1 X X X X 1 1 X X 1 X X 0 X X 0 X X 0 X X 0 X X 0
Page 45

S S

Negative Justification
RSOH H1 H2 MSOH H3

Start of VC-4

Actual pointer
125s

Pointer with inverted D bits

RSOH H1 H2 MSOH H3

250s
RSOH H1 H2 MSOH

negative justification byte (data)

New pointer
H1

375s
RSOH H2 MSOH H3

500s

Page 46

Pointer justification
frame n-1

frame n

AU-Pointer

frame n+1
AU-Pointer

Page 47

Mappings

Page 48

Mapping 140 Mbit/s


Container C-4 contains a 140 Mbit/s PDH Tributary
9 RSOH
AU Pointer

261

260 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 Z3 K3 Z5

MSOH

20 x 13 bytes per row C-4 140 Mbit/s

C-4 transport capacity: 260 x 9 x 64 kbit/s = 149.760 kbit/s


Page 49

Mapping of a 140 Mbit/s Tributary into VC-4


The figure shows one row of the VC-4

J1 W

96 I 96 I 96 I 96 I

X Y Y Y

96 I 96 I 96 I 96 I

Y Y Y X

96 I 96 I 96 I 96 I

Y Y X Y

96 I 96 I 96 I 96 I

Y X Y Z

96 I 96 I 96 I 96 I

X Y Y

=IIIIIIII

= RRRRRRRR

= CRRRROOO

= I I I I I I SR O = Overhead bit

I = Information bit S = Justification opportunity bit

R = Fixed stuffing bit C = Justification control bit

Page 50

Mapping 34 Mbit/s
Container C-4 contains 3 times a 34 Mbit/s PDH Tributary (ETSI structure)
9
RSOH
AU Pointer

261

260
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 Z3 K3 Z5 H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3

MSOH

fixed stuffing

VC-4 POH

J1 B3 J1 C2 B3 J1 G1 C2 B3 F2 G1 C2 H4 F2 G1 Z3 H4 F2 K3 Z3 H4 Z5 K3 Z3 Z5 K3 Z5

VC-3 #3 VC-3 #2 VC-3 #1

C3 C-3 34 Mbit/s

VC-3 POH

84

C-3 transport capacity: 84 X 9 x 64 kbit/s = 48.384 kBit/s

Page 51

Mappings 2 Mbit/s
RSOH
AU pointer

MSOH

VC-4

TUG-3

TUG-2 TU-12
VC-12

Tu pointer

Page 52

Mapping and Multiplexing (1)


1 2
J1 B3

10...........................................261

RSOH

AU-4 Pointer

C2 G1 F2 H4

MSOH

Z3 K3 Z5

S T U F F I N G S T U F F I N G

A B C A B C A

A B C

. ......

. ......

. ......

TUG-3 86 (A)

TUG-3 86 (B)

TUG-3 (C)

86

Page 53

Mapping and Multiplexing (2)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10...........................................86

TUG-3

S T U F F I N G

S T U F F I N G

N P I

NPI: Null Pointer Indication 1001 XX11 1110 0000 XXXX XXXX

A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A2

E3 F3 G3

123 1231231 23

123 123123123

123 123123123

TUG-2 (A)

TUG-2 (B)

TUG-2 (G)

TU-12 #1

.....

TU-12 #3

TU-12 #1

.....

TU-12 #3

TU-12 #1

.....

TU-12s occupy TU-12 36 bytes per #3 frame

Page 54

Mapping 2 Mbit/s (asynchronous)


VC-12 Structure:
V5 R 32 bytes (32x8I) R J2 C1 C2 O O O O R R 32 bytes (32x8I) 140 Bytes R N2 C1 C2 O O O O R R 32 bytes (32x8I) V2 XXX XX10 H4 VC-4 POH V4

35 bytes in one VC-4

XXX XX00

H4

Payload
VC-4 Payload V1

XXX XX01

H4

Payload
VC-4 Payload

Payload
VC-4 Payload V3

R K4 S2 I I I I I I I
32 bytes (32x8I) R 500 s

XXX XX11

H4

Payload
VC-4 Payload

V4 V5: VC-12 Path Overhead R: fixed stuffing bits XXX XX00 H4 Payload J2: Path Trace C1/2: Justification control bit VC-4 Payload O: Overhead bit N2: Network Operator byte K4: APS H4: Indicates the number of Vx S2: Justification opportunity bit Page 55 V1,V2,V3: TU-12 Pointer I: Info-bit

VC-4 Contiguous Concatenation


4 x 9 bytes 4 x 261 bytes

STM-4
RSOH AU-4 Pointers
J1 B3 C2 G 1 F2

Fixed Stuff

Fixed Stuff

Fixed Stuff

MSOH

C-4-4c

H4 F3 K3 N1

VC-4-4c
The first Pointer indicates J1 All other Pointers are set to "Concatenation Indication"
4 x 261 bytes ATM Cell
Page 56

How to transport 600 Mbit/s ATM via 150 Mbit/s SDH ?


4x
Different delays for VC-4's?
VC4 VC4 150 Mbit/s VC4 150 Mbit/s VC4
150 Mbit/s 150 Mbit/s

?
600 Mbit/s VC-4-4c 622 Mbit/s
In Out

622 Mbit/s
Out In In Out Out In

STM-4c port

STM-4 port STM-4 port

STM-4c port

ATM switch SDH cross-connect for VC-4

ATM switch

Page 57

VC-4 virtual Concatenation (Generation)


4 x 9 bytes 4 x 261 bytes

STM-4
RSOH AU-4 Pointers
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 F3 K3 K3 N1 N1 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

MSOH

C-4-4vc

VC-4-4vc
4 x 261 bytes Generation: All Pointers are set to the same value All VC-4 should be kept in the same STM-4 All VC-4 are transported as individual VC-4's

ATM Cell
Page 58

VC-4 virtual Concatenation (Termination)


J1 B3 VC-4 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

#1

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

VC-4 #2

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

VC-4 #3

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

VC-4 #4

C-4-4vc

Termination: VC-4-4vc is reconstructed using the (different) pointer values for alignment

VC-4-4vc
4 x 261 bytes ATM Cell
Page 59

SDH and SONET are International Standards


ATM: 149.760 kbit/s
STM-N STS-3N AUG AU-4
STS-3C

VC-4
STS-3C SPE

C-4 x3 TUG-3 x7 C-3 x7

E4: 139.264 kbit/s

x1

TU-3

VC-3

ATM: 48,384 kbit/s

x3 x1 STM-0 STS-1 AU-3 STS-1 VC-3


STS-1 SPE

DS3: 44.736 kbit/s E3 : 34.368 kbit/s DS2: 6.312 kbit/s

TUG-2 VT group

x1

TU-2 VT-6 TU-12

VC-2
VT-SPE

C-2

Pointer processing Multiplexing Aligning Mapping


x4 VC-12
VT-SPE

x3

VT-2

C-12

E1: 2.048 kbit/s

TU-11 VT-1.5

VC-11
VT-SPE

C-11

DS1: 1.544 kbit/s

SONET

BELLCORE GR.253 ANSI T1.105

SDH

ITU-T G.707

SDH

ETSI

Page 60

SDH Network Elements

Page 61

SDH Network Elements


Terminal Multiplexer
PDH & STM-m Tributaries (m<n) Applications: Point-to-Point Transmission Systems (STM-1, STM-4, STM-16)

STM-n

SDH Repeater
STM-n STM-n Applications: Line Signal Regeneration in Point-to-Point and Ring Networks

Page 62

Add Drop Multiplexer

WEST

ADM

EAST

STM-1/4

STM-1/4

......

Tributary Ports : n x 2 Mbit/s ( 34 Mbit/s)

Page 63

Synchronous Cross Connect


2.4 Gbit/s 622 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s
16x

SDH 16x Multiplexer 4x 4x


155 Mbit/s
155 VC4 VC12

2.4 Gbit/s
622 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s

34 Mbit/s

34 2 140

2 VC12 2 2 140 VC4


34

2 2 34 2 2 140

34 Mbit/s

VC12 VC12 VC4

140 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s 34 (45)Mbit/s 2 (1.5)Mbit/s

140 Mbit/s

VC 4 VC 3 VC 12

140
VC3
VC11 VC12

140 Mbit/s 34 (45)Mbit/s 2 (1.5)Mbit/s

VC3 VC12
2

Page 64

Synchronous Line Equipment


4

16 x 140 Mbit/s or

4 4 4

16 x STM-1

Sync MUX Management Communication Unit Service Channel Unit

Optical Transmit Unit

STM-16

PC / TMN (Q) Service Channels Data Channels


4

SLX 1/16

Overhead Processing Unit


4 4 4

16 x 140 Mbit/s or 16 x STM-1

Sync DEMUX

Optical Receive Unit

STM-16

Page 65

Hybrid Networks Connect Old and New Technologies


140Mbit/s 2Mbit/s

TM

STM-1

ADM
STM-1, STM-4 2Mbit/s 34Mbit/s

ATM Switch

ADM
STM-1

STM-4/-16 ADM

140Mbit/s 34Mbit/s 8Mbit/s

DXC
LAN

2Mbit/s

Page 66

STM-4

SDH Network Topology


Trunk Network L1

Trunk Network L 2
STM-16

STM-1 Exchange

Trunk Network L2

Local Network
Local Exchange

FlexMux

Subscriber Access

Mux 64/2M

Page 67

Synchronization Architecture in SDH

Page 68

Synchronization Network
Primary Reference Clock
long term: holdover 24h:

PRC

Caesium (Stratum 1)

requ : 1 x 10-11 typ : 5 x 10-12 Rubidium (Stratum 2) requ : 1.6 x 10-8 , 1 x 10-10 typ : 4 x 10-11 , 2 x 10-11

SSU

SSU

Synchronization Supply Unit

SEC
SDH Equip.

SEC
SDH Equip.

SEC
SDH Equip.

SDH Equipment Clock

Page 69

Synchronization reference model

G.811 PRC

G.812 TNC

SSU

G.812 TNC

SSU

G.813 SEC

G.813 SEC

G.813 SEC

Limits: Max. Max. 10 x G.812 TNC 60 x G.813 SEC, though no more than 20 between 2 TNCs

Page 70

Synchronization of SDH Network Elements


SDH Network Element Internal Oscillator 4.6 ppm 2 Mbit/s Data Signal

155 Mbit/s Data Signal

Osc.

Synchronous SDH Signal 2 048 kHz Central Clock

Page 71

Hold-over mode
Phase error [ ns] 100000 10000 1000 100 10

0.01

100

10000
Observation interval [s]
Page 72

Hold-over measured values (TIE)

Page 73

Which Recommendations define Synchronization Networks


ITU-T Definitions Network Primary Reference Clocks Synchron. Supply Clocks (ST2) Equipment Clocks (ST3) G.810 G.825 G.811 G.812 G.813 (G.81s) ANSI / Bellcore T1.101 / GR-253 T1.105 / GR-253 T1.101 T1.101 GR-253 ETSI ETS 300 462-1 ETS 300 462-3 ETS 300 462-6 ETS 300 462-4 ETS 300 462-5

Page 74

Monitoring, Maintenance and Control Functions in SDH

Page 75

EVENTS SDH
Phys./Reg. Sect.
LOS TSE LSS LTI OOF LOF B1 B2 MS-AIS MS-RDI MS-REI AU-LOP AU-NDF AU-AIS AU-PJE B3 HP-UNEQ HP-RDI HP-REI
HP-TIM HP-PLM TU-LOP TU-NDF TU-AIS TU-LOM BIP-2/B3 LP-RDI LP-REI LP-RFI LP-TIM LP-PLM LCD HCOR HUNC VP-AIS VP-RDI VC-AIS VC-RDI Vx-AIS Vx-RDI LOC

EVENTS SONET
Line (L) Phys./Section
LOS TSE LSS LTI OOF LOF B1 B2 AIS-L RDI-L REI-L LOP-P NDF-P AIS-P
B3 UNEQ-P RDI-P REI-P PDI-P TIM-P PLM-P LOP-V NDF-V AIS-V LOM UNEQ-V RDI-V REI-V RFI-V PDI-V TIM-V PLM-V

Higher Order Path Mux Sect.

Loss Of Signal Test Sequence Error (Bit Err.) Loss of Sequence Synchron. Loss of incoming Timing Ref. Out Of Frame Loss Of Frame Regenerator Section BIP Err. Multiplex Section BIP Err. Multiplex Section AIS Mux Sect. Remote Defect Ind. Mux Sect. Remote Errro Ind. Loss Of AU Pointer New Data Flag AU Pointer AU Alarm Ind. Signal AU Pointer Just. Event HO Path BIP Errors HO Path Unequipped HO Path Remote Defect Ind. HO Path Remote Error Ind.
HO Path Trace Ident. Mismatch HO Path Payload Label Mism. Loss Of TU Pointer New Data Flag TU Pointer TU AIS Loss Of Multiframe LO Path BIP Errors LO Path Remote Defect Ind. LO Path Remote Error Ind. LO Path Remote Failure Ind. LO Path Trace Ident. Mismatch LO Path Payload Label Mism. Loss of Cell Delineation Correctable Header Errors Uncorrectable Header Errors Virtual Path AIS Virtual Path Remote Defect Indication Virtual Channel AIS Virtual Channel Remot Defect Indication Virtual Channel AIS & Virtual, Path AIS simultan. Virtual Channel RDI & Virtual, Path RDI simultan. Loss Of Continuity

STS Path (SP)

Loss Of Signal Test Sequence Error Loss of Sequence Synchr. Loss of inc. TimingRef Out Of Frame Loss Of Frame Section BIP Errors Line BIP Errors Line AIS Line remote Defect Ind. Line Remote Error Ind. SP Loss Of Pointer SP New Data Flag SP AIS
SP BIP Errors SP Unequipped SP Remote Deect. Ind. SP Remote ERrro Ind. SP Payload Defect Ind. SP Trace Ident. Mismatch SP Payload Label Mismatch VP Loss Of Pointer VP New Data Flag VP AIS Loss Of Multiframe VP Unequipped VP Remote Defect Ind. VP Remote Error Ind. VP Remote Failure Ind. VP Payload Defect Ind. VP Trace Ident. Mismatch VP Payload Label Mism. I.610 I.610 I.610 I.610 I.610 (O.191) (O.191) I.610

Lower Order Path

ATM Path

VT Path (VP)

Page 76

Frame Areas Covered by Parity Bytes


Parity bytes providing a means to supervise the transmission quality of a life STM-N signal !
RSOH
Payload MSOH B1: - Supervision of the whole STM-1 frame - Covers the regenerator sections of a transmission system B2: - Covers the multiplex sections (from network node to network node)

RSOH
AU-PTR

Payload

MSOH

RSOH Payload Payload

MSOH

B3: - Covers the transmission paths from beginning to the end (tributary to tributary)
Page 77

Parity Supervison Procedure


Transmit Side
frame n+1 frame n

BIP-8 Receive Side


frame n+1 frame n

B1

recalculation at Rx side

Comparison
with the Tx side value

BIP-8

B1

Page 78

How to Built a Parity Byte ?


Bit interleaved data field structure of the area covered

Field width:

BIP-24: 24 bits (B2)


BIP-8: BIP-2: 8 bits (B1, B3) 2 bits (V5)

Column by column parity check for even numbers of "1"


Example: 24 bit interleaved parity check (BIP-24)
Byte 1 1 2 3 BIP-24 801
1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

Byte 2
1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

Byte 3
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

even numbers of "1" 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

Page 79

SDH Maintenance Interactions


Regenerator Section (J0) (B1) (K2) (B2) (M1) (K2) LOS/LOF RS-TIM BIP Err. "1" AIS Multiplex Section Higher Order Path Lower Order Path

MS-AIS MS-BIP Err. MS-REI MS-RDI AU-AIS AU-LOP

"1"

AIS

"1"

(C2) (J1) (B3) (G1) (G1)

HP-UNEQ HP-TIM HP-BIP Err. HP-REI HP-RDI


TU-AIS TU-LOP LOM HP-PLM

"1" AIS

"1"

(H4) (C2) (V5) (J2) (V5) (V5) (V5) (V5)

LP-UNEQ LP-TIM LP-BIP Err. LP-REI LP-RDI LP-PLM

"1"

AIS

"1" AIS

Page 80

Maintenance Signal Definitions (1)


LOS OOF LOF B1 Error MS-AIS B2 Error MS-RDI MS-REI AU-AIS AU-LOP HP-UNEQ HP-TIM HP-SLM HP-LOM Drop of incomming optical power level causes BER of 10-3 or worse A1, A2 incorrect for more than 625 us If OOF persists of 3ms Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 K2 (bits 6,7,8) =111 for 3 or more frames Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-24 If MS-AIS or excessive errors are detected, K2(bits 6,7,8)=110 M1: Binary coded count of incorrect interleavedbit blocks All "1" in the entire AU including AU pointer 8 to 10 NDF enable or 8 to 10 invalid pointers C2="0" for 5 or more frames J1: Trace identifier mismatch C2: Signal label mismatch H4 values (2 to 10 times) unequal to multiframesequence

B3 Error HP-RDI HP-REI

Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 G1 (bit 5)=1, if an invalid signal is received in VC-4/VC-3 G1 (bits 1,2,3,4) = binary coded B3 errors

Page 81

Maintenance Signal Definitions (2)


TU-AIS TU-LOP All "1" in the entire TU incl. TU pointer 8 to 10 NDF enable or 8 to 10 invalid pointers VC-12: V5 (bits 5,6,7) = 000 for >=5 frames LP-TIM LP-SLM BIP-2 Err LP-RDI LP-REI LP-RFI VC-3: J1 mismatch; VC-12: J2 mismatch VC-3: C2 mismatch; VC-12: V5 (bits 5,6,7) mismatch Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-2 (V5) V5 (bit 8) = 1, if TU-2 path AIS or signal failure received V5 (bit 3) = 1, if >=1 errors were detected by BIP-2 V5 (bit 4) = 1, if a failure is declared LP-UNEQ VC-3: C2 = all "0" for >=frames;

Abbreviations: AU HP LOF LOM LOP LOS Administration unit High path Loss of frame Loss of multiframe Loss of pointer Loss of signal LP OOF REI RDI RFI SLM Low path Out of frame Remote error indication (FEBE) Remote defect indication (FERF) Remote failure indication Signal label mismatch TIM TU UNEQ VC C Trace identifier Tributary unit Unequipped Virtual container

Page 82

Perfomance Parameter
ITU-T G.821 ES Errored Second SES Severely Errored Second
Second with > 1 bit error Second with BER > 1 x 10E-3

ITU-T G.826
ES Errored Second
Second with> 1errored block Second with > 30% errored blocks or > 1 defect Errored block, not occuring as part of SES

SES Severely Errored Second BBE Background Block Error

UAS

Unavailable Seconds:
10 sec Unavailability detected Unavailable Seconds < 10 sec 10 sec Availability detected Time

Page 83

New Parameter: Severly Errored Period

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time

Severly Errored Period = 1 2

Unavailability

Severely Errored Second Error-free Second

Page 84

Jitter and Wander

Page 85

Jitter and Wander Definitions

Ideal Signal (NRZ)

Jittered Signal

Jitter

Page 86

Sources of Jitter and Wander


Interference signals

Pattern dependent jitter


Phase noise Delay variation Stuffing and wait time jitter Mapping jitter

Pointer jitter

Page 87

Jitter and Wander Measurement Method


Clock Input Jitter and Wander

Signal Input

Pattern

N
1

f
V

HP

LP

Clock

Result Evaluation
Filters Peak-to-Peak Detector

Pattern-Clock Converter

Frequency Divider

Phase Detector

Ext. Reference Clock Input (Wander Measurement)

f
V

~ 1 Hz

Phase Detector

Low Pass Filter

VCO

Reference Clock Generator (PLL)


Page 88

Jitter Measurement Filters


Values according to ITU-T Rec. G.825 and G.813 High pass1 High pass2 1.5 Mbps: 10 Hz 6 Mbps: 10 Hz 45 Mbps: 10 Hz 5.0 Uipp 3.0 Uipp 5.0 Uipp 8 kHz 3 kHz 30 kHz 0.1 Uipp 0.1 UIpp 0.1 UIpp Low pass 40 kHz 60 kHz 400 kHz 0.4 MHz 1.3 MHz 5 MHz 20 MHz 80MHz
Frequency / Hz

Amplitude / dB

Wander

OC-1 : 100 Hz 1.5 UIpp 20 kHz 0.15 UIpp OC-3 : 500 Hz1.5 UIpp 65 kHz 0.15 UIpp OC-12 : 1 kHz1.5 UIpp 250 kHz 0.15 UIpp OC-48 : 5 kHz1.5 UIpp 1 MHz 0.15 UIpp OC-192: 20kHz 1.5 UIpp 4 MHz 0.15 UIpp 10 Hz

Total Jitter

Jitter including lower Frequency Components

High Frequency Jitter

Page 89

Definition of Jitter Peak-to-Peak Amplitude


Jitter / UIpp

Jitter Amplitude (PP)

Time

Measurement Period

Page 90

Jitter and Wander Measurements


Network output jitter (G.825)
Network element output jitter (G.783, G.813) Jitter transfer function (G.958)

Jitter and Wander tolerance (G.825, G.813)

Page 91

WANDER Definitions
Wander
TIE MTIE TDEV

Long-term timing variation (below 10 Hz)


"Time Interval Error" "Max. Time Interval Error" "Time Deviation", timing variation as a function of integration time. Provides information about the spectral content.

TVAR "Time Variation", square of TDEV ADEV MADEV "Allen Deviation" "Modified Allen Deviation"

Page 92

TIE and MTIE Definitions


Wander / UI
Time variation against reference

TIE max

MTIE
TIE min

TIE at t End

Time Observation Period Start End

Page 93

Results (MTIE) compared to Standards

Page 94

Network resilience

Page 95

Linear Protection (G.783)


W P
W P
1 : 1 Protection scheme 1 + 1 Protection scheme

W W P
1 : N Protection scheme

Page 96

Linear Protection (G.783)


W P
W P
1 : 1 Protection scheme 1 + 1 Protection scheme

W W P
1 : N Protection scheme

Page 97

Unidirectional and Bidirectional Rings


Traffic A B ADM Traffic A B

ADM
B -> A A Traffic B A

A
ADM

ADM

ADM

ADM

Traffic B A

ADM

ADM

longer path

Unidirectional Ring
traffic between A-B uses the entire length of ring

Bidirectional Ring
use the shorter or longer path increase number of paths short path traffic long path protection
Page 98

Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring normal traffic from Node A D Unidirectional


Fiber 1

Unidirectional Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring Working and Protection Failure Unidirectional


Fiber 1

Unidirectional Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring


Unidirectional Fiber 1

Unidirectional P Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring


Unidirectional Fiber 1

Unidirectional P Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

2-Fiber MSPR Normal traffic flow from Node A D


Fiber 1 W W

Fiber 2 P

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

W
MSPR .... Multiplex Section Protection Ring

2-Fiber MSPR protection Switching for Working and Protection Failure


Fiber 1 W W

Fiber 2 P

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

W
MSPR .... Multiplex Section Protection Ring

4-Fiber MSPR Normal traffic flow from Node A D


W W

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

W
MSPR .... Multiplex Section Protection Ring

4-Fiber MSPR protection Switching for working fiber break Node A D


W W

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

W
MSPR .... Multiplex Section Protection Ring

4-Fiber MSPR protection Switching for working and protection Fiber Failure
W
W

NODE A

NODE B

NODE F NODE E P NODE D

NODE C

W Working Line Protection Line

W
MSPR .... Multiplex Section Protection Ring

TMN in SDH networks

Page 108

Network Management
Basic tasks of network management:
Administrative functions:
Operation: additional links) Network supervising Network linking (anomalies, defects) (reserve links,

Maintenance:

Identifing and elimination of impairments

Planning and commissioning: Network configuration

Operative functions:

Supervision of network functions Repair Installation Self test

Page 109

TMN Overlay
Q

Central OS
Q Q

Local OS Q Q
ECC

CC
Q
ECC

CC

ADM ADM ADM ADM

Page 110

Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) Overlay


Management of:
Central OS
NE Manager
STM-N

Central OS
Q3

NE Local Manager OS Q3 QECC QECC


ADM

Q3

Performance Faults Configuration Accounting Security

Q3

DXC
ADM

STM-N

STM-N

DXC

ADM ADM

Data Communication Network : X.25, ISDN, LAN

Page 111

TMN Reference Configuration


Operating System

OS
Q3
Data Communication Network

Workstation

DCN
Q3 Q3
Mediation Device

MD
Q2 or Q1
Local Communication Network

Workstation

LCN
Qx
Network Element Network Element

Workstation

NE

NE

MD: Conversion between different interfaces (Information Conversion Function ICF: manufacturer-specific information model -> operator specific information model)

Page 112

SDH Benefits
Reduced equipment costs
multi vendor compatibility

Lower maintenance costs


built-in defect and anomaly monitoring

Future proof equipment


SDH is the physical layer for BISDN

Efficient drop / insert facilities


ADM (add&drop multiplexers), DXC (digital cross connectors)

TMN capabilities
Built-in DCN (data comm. network), DCC/ECC

More flexibility in provision of services


adding transmission capacity by routing on demand

Page 113

Future Trends in Synchronous Technology

STM-256

Digital Wrapper AON

PoS

Page 114

Lets summarize !
Please name the PDH bitrates ! Please explain stuffing ! When will stuffing be applied ? What is the reaction of a Network element after an LOS alarm ? What is the meaning of an LOF alarm ? Is it possible to drop an 2Mbit/s signal out of an 140Mbit/s line ? Why not ? Please name the SDH bitrates ! Explain the way an PDH signal is integrated in an STM-1 !
Page 115

Lets summarize !
Please name the different sections of an SDH connection !

What is a parity byte ?


Please explain the way to build a parity byte ! Which parity bytes do you know ? Which overhead bytes are used for data communication ? What is a pointer ? What is a pointer used for ?

Page 116

Lets summarize !
Please name the SDH network elements !

What are they used for ? Please explain how a synchronization network looks like !
Explain the possibilities to synchronize a NE ! What is a holdover mode ? Which byte is used to transport an HP-UNEQ ? Please explain Jitter and Wander ! How can jitter be defined ? Please explain the terms TIE and MTIE ? Please explain the term TDEV ?
Page 117

Lets summarize !
Please name the main Jitter and Wander measurements !

Explain these measurements !


Please explain the methods of linear protection ! What kind of ring structures do you know ? What are the the advantages of a TMN controlled network ? How is the TMN interface called ? Please explain DWDM !

Page 118