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SANITARY LANDFILLS

What are Sanitary Landfills?


Sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe.

What are Sanitary Landfills?


A waste disposal site designed, constructed, operated and maintained in a manner that exerts engineering control over significant potential environmental impacts arising from the development and operation of the facility (RA 9003)

Basic Requirements
Full or partial hydrogeological isolation Formal engineering preparations Permanent control Planned waste emplacement and covering

Criteria for Siting


Consistent with the overall land use plan of the LGU Accessible from major roadways and thoroughfares Adequate quantity of earth cover material that is easily handled and compacted

Criteria for Siting


Does not affect environmentally sensitive resources such as aquifer. Groundwater reservoir, or watershed area Large enough to accommodate the communitys wastes for a period of 5 years.

Design Criteria
Site
Inexpensive land Within economically hauling distance Have year-round access At least 1500m downwind from residential and commercial neighbors Clear, level, and well drained Soil of low permeability Well above groundwater table

Design Criteria
Preparation
Fencing Grading Stockpiling of cover material Landscaping Leachate collection and monitoring system Wells for gas collection

Criteria for Establishment of Landfill


Liners Leachate collection and treatment system Gas control recovery system Groundwater monitoring well system Cover

Bottom Liner
One or more layers or combination of
Clay Plastic (HDPE: 100 mils or 1/10 of an inch thick Composite

Landfill Liners
6" clay 16 oz Geotextile Fabric-Polyfelt (like a wool blanket or a felt material) 60 mil High Density Polyethylene Liner (May be either smooth or textured depending on how resistant to slipping the design required, and resistant to tears, chemicals, and punctures)

Landfill Liners
16 oz Geotextile Fabric-Polyfelt 2 Layers of Geo Net-Drainage Netting 16 oz Geotextile Fabric-Polyfelt 60 mil High Density Polyethylene Liner 16 oz Geotextile Fabric-Polyfelt 18" of 1/2" stone containing a Network of leachate collection pipes

Leachate
The liquid produced when water percolates through any permeable material. It can contain either dissolved or suspended material, or usually both. Anoxic, acidic, rich in organic acid groups, sulfate ions and with high concentrations of common metal ions especially iron.

Leachate Collection
Pipes laid along the bottom capture contaminated water and other fluid as they accumulate

Brought to wastewater treatment facility


Solids are returned to the landfill

Problems with leachate collection system


Clogging of pipes due to
Silt or mud; Growth of microorganisms in the pipes; Chemical reaction leading to the precipitation of minerals in the pipes; or Weakening of pipes by chemical attack then be crushed by the tons of garbage piled on them.

Landfill Gas
Produced from organic wastes Mainly methane

Landfill Gas Collection System


spaced approximately 250 feet apart to optimize gas collection consists of a combination of solid and perforated pipes and a wellhead assembly A 36-inch borehole is drilled through the waste

Landfill Gas Collection System


A combination of solid and perforated pipes are placed in the borehole pipe size of the gas well ranges from six inches to eight inches schedule 80 PVC pipes or SDR 17 HDPE pipes

Landfill Gas Collection System


washed gravel is placed around the perforated pipe and cohesive soils are placed around the solid pipe

a bentonite plug is installed on top of the ground surface around the well

Landfill Gas Collection System


A wellhead assembly consists of
sampling port for gas monitoring, temperature gauge control valve assembly to regulate the flow of landfill gas

Landfill Gas

Monitoring Wells

Water Monitoring

Cover
A cap over the landfill to prevent leachate formation. Generally consist of several sloped layers: clay or membrane liner to prevent rain from intruding

Cover
Overlain by a very permeable layer of sandy or gravelly soil to promote rain runoff

Overlain by topsoil in which vegetation can root to stabilize the underlying layers of the cover

Cover
Two forms
Daily cover placed over the waste at the close of each days operation

Final cover or cap, which is the material placed over a completed landfill to control infiltration of water, gas emission to the atmosphere and erosion

Problems with Covers


Erosion by natural weathering Burrowing by soil- dwelling mammals Sunlight will dry out clay or destroy membrane liners through the action of ultraviolet radiation

Subsidence

Cross Section Through a Sanitary Landfill

Aerial View of a Sanitary Landfill

Secondary Pollution from Landfills


Water Contamination Gas Generation Offensive Odor Pest and Vectors Noise and Vibration Fire

Prevention of Secondary Pollution


Use cover soil Cover solid waste quickly after being unloaded Apply soil cover on the slope of waste after the last waste unloaded each day

Benefits from Daily Application of Soil Cover


Prevention of waste scattering. Prevention of offensive odor. Control of rodents and vectors. Prevention of fire and its spreading Improvement of landscape. Decreases in leachate generation.

Management and Operation of Landfill


Waste Analysis Plan before operation Monitor leachate and gas regularly, and control vectors Landfill record Management of post landfill site

Management of Post Landfill Site


Factors that affect timing of post landfill reuse Land subsidence speed

Leachate quality
Gas quality and amount Temperature of waste deposited