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GLOBAL SYSTEM OF MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS (GSM)

NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
OMC

MSC/VLR BSC BIE BTS Abi s BSS C Um MS HLR/ AUC F EIR E

A
MSC/VLR

PSTN ISDN PSPDN

H
SC/VM MSS

Allocated GSM Frequency Bands


GSM900 : up: 890~915MHz down: 935~960MHz duplex interval: 45MHz bandwidth: 25MHz frequency interval: 200KHz GSM1800 : up: 1710-1785MHz down: 1805-1880MHz duplex interval: 95MHz working bandwidth: 75MHz frequency interval: 200KHz EGSM900 : up: 880~890MHz down: 925~935MHz duplex interval: 45MHz bandwidth: 10MHz frequency interval: 200KHz

GSM1900MHz: up:1850~1910MHz down:1930~1990MHz duplex interval: 80MHz working bandwidth: 60MHz frequency interval: 200KHz

GSM ENTITIES
MSC VLR HLR holds all the switching functions manages the necessary radio resources
dynamically stores subscriber information needed to handle incoming/outgoing calls

Manages the mobile subscribers database

AUC/EIR Authentication Center(s) (AUC)


Handling Mobile Station Equipment Identity

MS

Equipment used by mobile service subscribers for access to services.

INTERFACES
BTS BIE MS Um interface Abis interface BSC BIE OMC Q3 interface

SM

SM TC Ate r interfac e

MSC A interfa ce

Fig.1-3 BSS Structure

TRAU
Voice conversion 16kbit/s RPE-LTP 64kbit/s A-law PCM codes.

Typically TC is located between MSC and BSC.

Base Station Controller


BSC Managing Wireless network-BSS Monitoring BTS Controls:
Wireless link distribution between MS and BTS Communication connection and disconnection MS location, handover and paging Voice encoding, transecoding (TC), rate, adaptation, The operation and maintenance functions of BSS.

Base Transceiver Station GSM Network Entity


BTS
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Wireless transmission Wireless diversity Wireless channel encryption Conversion between wired and wireless signals Frequency Hopping

BaseBand Unit: voice and data speed adapting and channel coding RF Unit: modulating/demodulating, transmitter and receiver Common Control Unit: BTS operation and maintenance

CHANNEL SPECIFICATIONS
14.4Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F14.4) 9.6Kbit/s FR TCH(TCH/F9.6) Data CH TCH Voice CH 4.8Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F4.8) 4.8Kbit/s HR TCH (TCH/H4.8) FR Voice Traffic Channel (TCH/FS) Enhanced FR Traffic Channel (TCH/EFR) HR Traffic Channel (TCH/HS) channel BCH FCCH (down) SCH (down) BCCH (down) RACH (up) CCCH AGCH (down) PCH (down) SDCCH DCCH FACCH

CCH

SACCH

Channel Combinations

Small capacity cell with only 1 TRX


TN0: FCCH+SCH+CCCH+BCCH+SDCCH/4(0,_,3)+SACCH/C4(0,_,3); TN1-7: TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

The medium-size cell with 4 TRXs


1TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH; 2 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7); 29 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

Cell Mode Layout


Omni-directional cell
O

Adopt omni-directional antenna the overall directional propagation characteristic is the same.

Directional cell In general, cell with multi-sector is in common use. Every directional cell adopts directional antenna.

Traffic Measurements
Erlang : the traffic intensity of a totally occupied channel (i.e. the call hour of a unit hour or the call minute of a unit minute). For example, the traffic of a channel occupied for 30 minutes in an hour is 0.5 Erlang) GOS: defined as the probability of call blocking or the probability when the call delay time is longer than a given queuing time.

Frequency Hopping
Reason: counteract Rayleigh Fading scatter interference among multiple calls Types: Base band frequency hopping keeps the transmission and receiving frequency of each carrier unit unchanged, but merely sends FU transmission data to different carrier units at different FN moments. radio frequency hopping controls the frequency synthesizer of each transceiver, making it hop according to different schemes in different time slots.

Diversity ion Technology


The multi-path propagation of radio signals causes magnitude fading and delay time. Space Diversity (antenna diversity) Polarization Diversity orthogonal polarization diversity. horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. Frequency Diversity The working principle of this technology is that such fading wont take place on the frequency outside the coherence bandwidth of the channel.

Frequency Reuse Pattern


D3 C1 C3 A1 D2 B2 A1 A2 B1 B3 C2 A1 A3 D2 C1 C3 C2 D1 D3 A2 B1 C3 B2 A1 A3 D2 A1 B1 B3 C2 D1 D3 D2 C1 C3

4 3 reuse mode: one group includes 3 sectors /site ,12 frequency which are distributed to 4 sites. Every site owns 3 frequency.

Frequency Reuse Pattern


B3 C1 C3 A1 A3 B2 C1 A2 B1 B3 A2 A1 A3 C2 A1 A3 B2 C1 C3 B2 C1 B3 A2 B1 B3 A2 A1 A1 A3 C2 A1 A3 B2 C1 C3

3 3 reuse mode: one group includes 3 sectors /site ,9 frequency which are distributed to 3 sites. Every site owns 3 frequency.

GSM EQUIPMENT

ZXG10 BSS

Structure of ZXG10-BSC
GSN Gb MSC A OMC
TCP/IP X.25 DDN

BSC
SCM SCM: System control Module RMM: Radio Resource Management Module Each Module of BSC can manage 128 Cells/256 TRXs, and each BSC consists of 4 modules maximally, so one BSC can manage 1024 TRXs maximally.

RMM
#1

RMM
#2

... ...

RMM
#4

Abis
BTS 1

...

... BTS n

BTS 1

...

BTS n

Capacity Configuration of ZXG10-BSC

Ntrx < 240


240 < Ntrx < 480 480 < Ntrx < 720 720 < Ntrx < 960 Advantage: 1Support small capacity network

1 rack 1 SCM+ 1 RMM 2 racks 1 SCM + 2 RMM 3 racks 1 SCM + 3 RMM 3 racks 1 SCM + 4 RMM

2Large capacity network can be constructed in phases

Rack Structure
BCTL BNET BATC BBIU

BBIU BCTL-RMU BCTL-SCU BNET BATC BATC

BSMU
PCU

BCTL Layer
1 P O W B 2 3 S M E M 4 5 6 7 M P 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 M P C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M C O M M P M E O P N D P O W B

SMEM Qty. Remark 1 Mandatory

MP 2 M

COMM 6~12 Optional

PEPD 1 O

MON 1 O

POWB 2 M

BCTL 1 M

N_COMM_MPMP=2 N_COMM_MTP=2 N_COMM_MPPP=2 or 4 or 6 or 8 So: N_COMM=6 or 8 or 10 or 12

BBIU BCTL-RMU BCTL-SCU BNET BATC BATC

BNET Layer
1 P O W B 2 3 4 5 6 7 S Y C K 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 B O S N B O S N D D D D D D D D D D S S S S S S S S S S N N N N N N N N N N I I I I I I I I I I P O W B S C Y K C I K

BOSN Qty. Remark 2 Mandatory

SYCK 2 M

DSNI 6\8\10 Optional

CKI 1 O

POWB 2 M

BNET 1 M

N_DSNI_MP=2 N_DSNI_PP_A=2 or 4 N_DSNI_PP_Abis=2 or 4 SO: N_DSNI=6 or 8 or 10

BBIU BCTL-RMU BCTL-SCU BNET BATC BATC

BBIU Layer
1 P O W B 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 T T I I C C 9 T T I I C C 10 11 12 B T T I I I P C C P 13 14 15 B C C I O O P M M P I I 16 B I P P 17 B I P P 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 P T T T T T T O I I I I I I W C C C C C C B

COMI
Qty. 2

BIPP
2 or 4

TIC
1~12

POWB
2

BBIU
1

Remark

Mandatory

Optional

Optional

BBIU BCTL-RMU

N_TIC_Abis=N_Abis_E1/4 N_BIPP=N_TIC_Abis/6

BCTL-SCU BNET BATC BATC

BATC Layer
1 P O W B 2 3 T C P P 4 T C P P 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A D D D D D D D D I R R R R R R R R P T T T T T T T T P 14 A I P P 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 P T T T T T T T T O I I I I I I I I W C C C C C C C C B

TCPP
Qty. 2

DRT
1~8

AIPP
2

TIC
1~8

POWB
2

BATC
1

Remark

Mandatory

Optional

BBIU

N_TIC_A=N_A_E1/4 N_DRT_A=N_TIC_A

BCTL-RMU BCTL-SCU BNET BATC BATC

Easy to Expand

1 RACK 256TRX

2 RACKS 512TRX

3 RACKS 1024TRX

ZTE BTS Series


BTSV(1) BTSV(2) BS21 MB EMB SBTS BS30

ZXG10-BTS Rack

S222

S444

S888

S444

S888

S12/12/12

Indoor BTS with 12 TRX(ZXG10-BTSV2)


Receiver sensitivity: Power output: BTS power control -110dBm 40/80W

6 levels staticstep: 2dB


15 levels dynamicstep: 2dB Rack demension: 1600600550 mm3 (H x W x D) Max power consumption: 2200W 12 TRXs DC voltage input: -40~-57VDC 19~29VDC

Working temperature: -5oC ~ +45oC Relative humidity: 15% ~ 85%

Physical structure of ZXG10-BTS(V2)


PDM
ZTE
PDM
- 48V GN D

ZXG10-B2
CCM CCM
RST RST

CMM

CDU
TX1 TX2

T RM

T RM

T RM

T RM

CDU
TX1 TX2

TX

TX

TX

TX

TEST ANT
RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 EX1 EX2 R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D

TEST ANT
RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 EX1 EX2

TRM

TX1 TX2

CEU

T RM

T RM

T RM

T RM

TX1
TX TX TX TX

CEU

TX2 OTX1 TX3 TX4

AEM

OTX1 TX3 TX4 OTX2


RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 EX1 EX2 R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D

OTX2

RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 EX1 EX2

CDU
TX1 TX2

T RM

T RM

T RM

T RM

CDU
TX1 TX2

TX

TX

TX

TX

TEST ANT
RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 EX1 EX2 R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D R ST R X R X D

TEST ANT
RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 EX1 EX2

FCM

Architecture of ZXG10-BTS(V2)

ZXG10-BTSV2
MMI TRM1

BSC

CMM
PDM

TRM2

A E M

TRM12 FAN

Internal bus(control signaling,date flow,clock signal,etc

TRX Configuration S444

CDU
TX1 TX2 RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 ERX1 ERX2 TX1 TX2 RX1

CDU
RX2 RX3 RX4 ERX1 ERX2

TX RX1

RX2

TX RX1

RX2

TX RX1

RX2

TX RX1

RX2

TRM1

TRM2

TRM3

TRM4

CMM and TRM

CMM
(Controller & Maintenance Module)

TRM
(Transceiver Module )

CDU
LNA_Splitter EX1 EX2

Duplexer ANT

Cable

Rx_in

RX1 RX2 RX3

Cable Alarms forward RTE reverse


optional

RX4

Tx_out
50ohm

VSWR_meter

TX1 TX2

Alarms

Hybird_combiner

CDU(Combiner Distribution Unit ): one duplexer one combiner(2 to 1) one spliter(1 to 4 with 2 extended outputs )

Multiplex ratio on Abis interface is 15:1

Each E1(2M) on Abis interface can support 15 TRX, So it can effectively save the transmission cost.

7.2*16k TCH timeslot / TRX = 1.8*64k TCH timeslot / TRX 1*16k signaling timeslot / TRX Since very 4 16k timeslot can be multiplexed to a 64k timeslot, each E1 consists of 32 64k timeslot ( n + 1 ) / 4 + n * 1.8 + 1 = 32

n = 15

OMC-R

The adoption of OMC aims at the local or centralized operation and management. So network mode of OMC-R includes two: local networking and centralized networking. They will be introduced in detail later. OMC enables NSS/BSS to connect with upper-level mobile network management center through Q3 interface or DB interface. BTS is managed and maintained by BSC. The local BSC communicates with the server over LAN, and the remote BSC accesses the OMC-R server through centralized networking. The network topology of OMC-R is given in this Fig. One OMC-R can manage 10 MSC, 16 BSC, 4096 BTS

OMC-R Structure
LAN/WAN...
Q3 Server Billing Center DB

Upper-level NMC
Hub

OMC
Router TCP/IP

TCP/IP
Client Hub

PCM/X.25/DDN...
Router

ZXG10-BSC

Client

ZXG10-BSC
Hub Client

ZXG10-MSS

TCP/IP

Client

Local Maintenance Terminal


LAN PCM LAN/RS-232

OMC-R Sever

Client terminal

LMT (I) Router/FE MSC BSC 1 LMT (II)

Thank You