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# MAGNETO OPTIC CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

INTRODUCTION

An accurate electric current transducer is a key component of any power system instrumentation. To measure currents power stations and substations conventionally employ inductive type current transformers with core and windings. Magneto-optical current transformer technology provides a solution. The MOCT measures the electric current by means of Faraday Effect.

CONVENTIONAL TRANSFORMERS

## OPTICAL CURRENT TRANSFORMERS (OCTS)

A logical step to overcome the problems caused by electromagnetic interference on the sensor signal is to use a signal transmission that is immune to electromagnetic fields.

The advantage of direct magneto-optic transducers using opto-magnetic active materials is the absence of additional disturbances.
Disturbances by mechanical or electrical sensor parts are hysteresis, saturation, induction, temperature influence and damping.

Optical Current Transducers can be divided into five main groups: OCTs based on the Faraday effect Interferometric principles OCTs based on Bragg gratings Micromechanical sensors with optical readout Other optical current sensing principles

PRINCIPLE OF MOCT

## The Magneto-Optical current transformer is based on the Faradays effect.

Generally, this phenomenon can be described as follows: = V B.dl is the Faraday rotation angle, V is the Verdet constant of magneto-optical material, B is the magnetic flux density along the optical path, l is the optical path.

The above equation can be rewritten according to Amperes law as: =nVI I is the current to be measured, is the permeability of the material, n is the number of turns of the optical path.

The typical application of the Faraday Effect to a n MOCT is clear from the fig

The output optical signals from the analyzer can be described as, P1 = (P0 / 2) (1 + Sin 2 )
P2 =(P0 / 2) (1 - Sin 2 )

P0 is the optical power from the light source, is the Faraday rotation angle, P1 and P2 are the optical power delivered by the detectors.

DESIGN OF MOCT

## The two halves can be assembled around the conductor.

The rotation angles from the two halves of the sensor Fig(a) are added up in the signal processing unit so that the total rotation angle (1+2 ) is the same as the rotation angle from the optical path shown in Fig(b), which is two turns around the conductor.

Fig shows the structure of the housing for the clamp-on MOCT.

MOCT OPTICAL CURRENT TRANSFORMER SYSTEM FOR METERING 72.5-800 KV SYSTEMS, 50/60 HZ (ABB)

## MAGNETO OPTICAL SENSOR

Almost all transparent material exhibits the magnetooptical effect or Faraday Effect. In the MOCT, the total internal rotation angle is, 1+ 2 2VI

Where I is the current to be measured, = 4 x 10-7 H/m, V=7.7 x 102 degrees/Tm at a wavelength of 820nm, Therefore = 1.9 degrees/ KA.

## ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MOCT

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

No fires and explosions. No need to use metallic wires to transfer the signal. Immune to electromagnetic interference. Wider frequency response and larger dynamic range. Low voltage outputs.

Temperature and stress induced linear birefringence causes error and instability. Insufficient accuracy.

APPLICATIONS

The MOCT is designed to operate in a transparent manner with modern electronic meters and digital relays. The MOCT system satisfies current sensoring needs for revenue metering or protective relaying.

CONCLUSION

Magneto optical current transducer eliminates many of the drawbacks of the conventional current transformers.
By applying Faradays principle this transducer provides an easier and more accurate way of current measurement. This MOCT is widely used in power systems and substations nowadays.

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