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and behavioural disorders are not exclusive to any special group they are found in people of all regions, all countries and all societies. About 450 million people suffer from mental disorders (WHOs World Health Report, 2001). One person in four will develop one or more mental or behavioural disorders during their lifetime (WHO, 2001b).


and behavioural disorders are present at any point in time in about 10% of the adult population worldwide. One fifth of teenagers under the age of 18 years suffer from developmental, emotional or behavioural problems, one in eight has a mental disorder; Among disadvantaged children the rate is one in five.


and neurological disorders account for 13% of the total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to all diseases and injuries in the world (WHO, 2004d). Five of the ten leading causes of disability worldwide are psychiatric conditions, including:

Depression, Alcohol use, Schizophrenia and Compulsive disorder (Murray & Lopez, 1996).


estimate that by the year 2020 neuropsychiatric conditions will account for 15% of disability worldwide, with unipolar depression alone accounting for 5.7% of DALYs.

Proyeksi 5 Penyakit Utama tahun 1990-2020 ISPA Diare Penyakit pada masa perinatal

Proyeksi 5 Penyakit Utama tahun 2020 Ischaemic Heart Disease Unipolar Major Depression Road traffic accidents

Unipolar Major Depression

Ischaemic Heart Disease

Cerebro-vascular disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


pasti masih belum diketahui Beberapa penelitian:

Bahar et al (1992): Overall morbidity rates

were similar to those in industrialized countries. the Indonesian Psychiatric Epidemiologic Network (2004): the prevalence of mental disorders in adults was 18.5%


those with mental disorders, the following diagnoses were common:

drug abuse (44.0%), mental retardation (34.9%), mental dysfunction (16.2%) and mental disintegration (5.8%)


et al (1990) noted a relatively high prevalence (about 40%) of excessive alcohol consumption in a less developed village compared to a more developed one. Narendra et al (1990) noted an increase in risk taking behaviours like drug use among adolescents in Indonesia.


et al (1999): Among male students, smoking increased dramatically between the ages of 11 and 17, from 8.2% to 38.7%
Determinants: Best friends smoking behaviour and

attitudes towards smoking and older brothers smoking behaviour


et al (1992): The prevalence rate of autism within the birth cohort was 0.12%


factors are associated with an increased probability of onset, greater severity and longer duration of major health problems. Protective factors refer to conditions that improve peoples resistance to risk factors and disorders


environmental and economic determinants

Major socioeconomic and environmental determinants

for mental health are related to macroissues such as poverty, war and inequity
Individual and family-related determinants Individual and family-related risk and protective factors

can be biological, emotional, cognitive, behavioural, interpersonal or related to the family context