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Data vs.

Information
Data raw facts no context just numbers and text Information data with context processed data value-added to data

summarized organized analyzed

Data vs. Information


Data: 51007 Information:


5/10/07 The date of your final exam. $51,007 The average starting salary of an accounting major. 51007 Zip code of Bronson Iowa.

Data vs. Information


Data

Information
SIRIUS SATELLITE RADIO INC. $7.20 $7.00 $6.80
Stock Price

6.34 6.45 6.39 6.62 6.57 6.64 6.71 6.82 7.12 7.06

$6.60 $6.40 $6.20 $6.00 $5.80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Last 10 Days

Data Information Knowledge


Data Summarizing the data Averaging the data

Selecting part of the data


Graphing the data Adding context Adding value Information

Data Information Knowledge


Information How is the info tied to outcomes? Are there any patterns in the info?

What info is relevant to the problem?


How does this info effect the system? What is the best way to use the info? How can we add more value to the info? Knowledge

Information Systems
Generic Goal: Transform Data into Information

At the Core of an Information System is a Database (raw data).

Information Systems (TSP and PCS)

Data doesnt just appear, Capturing Data is really the first step

These systems help capture data but they also have other purposes (goals):
1. 2.

Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Process Control Systems (PCS)

Capturing Data

What are some examples of real TPSs? What kind of data is being capture? How is this data transformed into Information?

Data Processing

Recall that a basic system is composed of 5 components

Input, Output, Processing, Feedback, Control

Typically processing helps transform data into information. Input


Raw Data Processing Information

Output

Processing

Summarizing Computing Averages Graphing Creating Charts Visualizing Data

Processing: Great Example


Navigation System

Specialized Geographic Information System

Input: Maps, Addresses, Points of Interest, Yellow Pages Processing:


Computing Shortest Paths; Finding the Nearest Chinese Restaurant Directions (each turn + a map with arrows) List of nearby Chinese Restaurants (sorted by dist.)

Output:

Analysis Navigation System


Recall that Information Systems have five more specific components: People, Data, Communication Network, Hardware, Software. In a Navigation System

what is the Communication Network? what is the Hardware? who are the People?

Course Goal: Help you analyze systems?

Step 1: Always ask yourselfWhat is the purpose of the system? Step 2: Identify People, Data, Hardware, Software, Communication Network. Step 3: Identify Input, Output, Processing, Feedback, Control.

Navigation System Feedback

So what is the feedback in a navigation system? Feedback is information about how the system is performing.

Feedback can help you identify problems with the systemso you can improve it.

Feedback helps you determine if the system is achieving its goal.

In a heating system, the feedback was the actual temperature.

Navigation System Control

So what are some of the controls in a navigation system? Control: Changing a variable to help the system reach its goal or to set a new goal. In a heating system, the control was the desired temperature.

Navigation System Control


Obviously, entering a new destination Not so obvious


zooming in changing the map view selecting an alternative route

Key Points

A Navigation System takes raw data (maps, locations) and displays it visually (data information) so that it is easier to drive to a location. Goal The feedback (your current location) is perhaps the most important feature. Paper maps can NOT show your location.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS

In lab we are going to learn more about


1.

GIS systems

Data more informational (more valuable) if you visualize it on a map.

2.

Attributes that make information more valuable

Information is more valuable if it helps you achieve your goal.