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Influence of Allium ursinum incorporation in sunflower

Victor Radu CEAU, Raluca 2 Romica Cretu, Rodica Dinica


1 Food

1 PARNAVEL

and Engineering Science 2Chemistry Department, University Dunarea de Jos, Galati, Domneasca street, 47
Introduction
Extending the frying life of oil is of commercial and economic importance. Therefore, improving the thermal stability of cooking oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. Oils used in the home and oils used commercially require significantly different properties. Perhaps most importantly, commercial oils need to withstand intense heat and frying for longer periods of time. In order to increase stability, many healthy oils must be hydrogenated for commercial use, a process that adds unhealthy transfats. During the frying process, a number of changes take place in fats and oils, involving a complex pattern of thermolytic and oxidative reactions, which depend on the type of oil used and the food fried. 2.2. Peroxide value About 1 g of oil was weighed into a 100 ml flask. Previously prepared acetic acid-chloroform solution (8 ml), saturated potassium iodide (1 ml) were added with occasional shaking. The mixture was titrated with 0.01 N Na2S2O3 by shaking the sample vigorously until yellow color is almost gone. Approximately 5 drops of starch solution was added, and titration was continued with shaking until the blue color just disappeared. PV was calculated by using the following equation: PV (meq. peroxide/kg sample) = S x N x 1000/g sample 2.3. Acidity value About 5 g of wellmixed oil was weighed into a 250 ml flask .Benzyl alcohol (30-40ml) and 1% phenolphthalein, as indicator, were added. The mixture was titrated with 0.1 N NaOH with vigorous shaking until permanent faint pink color appeared and persisted at least 1 min. The acidity value was calculated according to the following equation: AV = 3,9998V / mp (mg NaOH/ g fat)

Results and discussions

Conclusions
In conclusion, we have examined the wild garlic (Allium ursinum) as inhibitor of lipid peroxidation and we found good activities in this direction. The incorporation of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) into sunflower seed oil helped to improve its thermal resistance and stability. This study demonstrated that wild garlic, used for their aromatic properties in the preparation of some food products, exhibit good properties as free radical scavengers and/or antioxidants. This fact can support their use to control lipid oxidation during food processing. Results obtained from our study agree with the findings of Bektas Tepe et al. (2005) when they studied the in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of some Allium species.

2,7

AI, mg NaOH/g fat

2,6 2,5 2,4 2,3 2,2 2,1 2,0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Figure 1. Photograph of wild garlic with flowers

Time, day
Figure 3. . Variation of the acidity index in time for the oil sample.

Materials and methods


PV, meq/g
1. Materials: Refined sunflower-seed oil without antioxidants was purchased from a factory whereas wild garlic (Allium ursinum) , used for sunflower seed oil treatment, was obtained from a local market. All chemicals used were of analytical grade. 2. Methods: 2.1. Sunflower-seed oil treatment with wild garlic In order to increase the amount of anti-oxidants in sunflower seed oil, the latter was treated either with normal Wild garlic or lyophilizated Wild garlic. To evaluate the effect of sunflower seed oil treatment with an aromatic herb on its thermal resistance, both Standard Oil and Treated Oil were heated at 105.5 C for 45, 90, and 140 minutes, respectively.

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 45 SWO LWO O 90 140 Time, min


Bektas, T., Munevver, S., Askin, A., Atalay, S. (2004). In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of five Allium species from Turkey. Food Chemistry 92 (2005) 8992 Lola, D., Anka, D., Pavle, P., Miroslava, M., Branko, K., Vele, T. (2003). Allelopathic potential of Allium ursinum L. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 32 (2004) 533544 Meriem, B., Bo, J., Consolate, N., Tang, J. (2006). Effect of Lavender and Thyme incorporation in sunflower seed oil on its resistance to frying temperatures. Food Research International 40 (2007) 341346

References

Figure 2. Oleic acid structure

Figure 4. Variation of the peroxide index value in time