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Basic of Electronics

In the Depth of Electronics

RAHUL KUMAR VERMA

Electronics Devices- an introduction


Everyone today is exposed to electronic devices in one way or another. The computer revolution is a good example. Everyone can benefit from additional knowledge of electronics. Even a quick scanning of this page will help.
A study of electronics starts with electricity, magnetism and basic electronics. This includes Ohm's law and other basic principles of electricity.
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Basic Electricity
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BASICS
It all starts with the electrons moving around atoms. Electricity is the movement of electrical charge from one place to another. Electric charges do not exist without their associated electric and magnetic fields. This module will introduce you to many of the basic concepts involved with electricity and magnetism.

Rahul Kumar Verma

Basic Electricity
MATTER Matter is physically everything that exists that we can touch and feel. Matter consists of atoms. Now we will introduce you to the structure of atoms, talk about electrons and static charge, moving charges, voltage, resistance, and current. All matter can be classified as being either a pure substance or a mixture. Matter can exist as either a solid, liquid, or a gas and can change among these three states of matter. In electronics the most important matter are conductive metals, non-conductive insulators, and semi-conductor materials like silicon and germanium.
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Basic Electricity
ELECTRICAL CHARGE Any object or particle is or can become electrically charged. Nobody completely understands what this charge consists of but we do know a lot about how it reacts and behaves. The smallest known charge of electricity is the charge associated with an electron. This charge has been called a "negative" charge. An atoms nucleus has a positive charge. These two un-like charges attract one another. Like charges oppose one another.

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Basic Electricity
ELECTRICAL CHARGE If you had 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 (6.25 x 10^18) electrons in a box you would have what has been named; one coulomb of charge. When electrical charges are at rest, meaning they are not moving, we call that static electricity. If charges are in motion we then have a flow of charge called electrical current. We have given the force that causes this current a name called electromotive force and it is measured by a unit called a volt (V). The unit of measurement of the current (I) or movement of the charge is called an ampere. The resistance, or opposition, to current flow is called an ohm (R).
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Basic Electricity
ELECTRICAL FIELDS - Around a charge is an electric field. With every electric field there is a magnetic field. While we can't see these fields, or yet know exactly what they consist of, we can measure them with instruments and tell a great deal about their behavior. The design and construction of electric motors, computers, radios, televisions, stereos, and many other electrical and electronic devices depend upon a knowledge of these basic principles of electricity. Mr. Volt, Mr. Ampere, and Mr. Ohm spent many years of their lives studying electricity. They were not alone however as many other scientist were studying and learning more about electricity as well.
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Basic Electricity
WATTS - POWER A watt is the International System unit of power equal to one joule per second. The symbol used for a watt is "P" for power. Power in watts is found by multiplying a circuits current (I) times its voltage (V). P = I*V
Moving electric charges are the heart of basic electronics. Knowing what moving charges are and how various electronic components affect the moving charges is the foundation of basic electronics.

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Basic Electronics
Electronics puts a knowledge of electricity to useful Work. Electronics applies electrical current flow of electrical charges to circuits to accomplish specific tasks. Amplifiers can be constructed from glass "tubes" containing metal elements, or more commonly today with solid state diodes, transistors, or integrated circuits. An amplifier is simply a device or circuit that takes a small signal input and controls a larger current as it output. The input signal voltage is small and the output voltage is larger amplified.

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Basic Electronics

A circuit containing wire conductors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and amplifiers can be configured in many ways to build various electronic circuits like oscillators, digital logic circuits, computer circuits, television and video circuits and much more. An oscillator by the way is just an amplifier with some of the output fed back into the input. Sounds like a perpetual motion machine but it isn't as the amplifiers power supply is providing the additional energy that is lost in the circuit and keeps the circulation, i.e. oscillations going

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Electric Current & Voltage


Electrical current, represented by the letter "I" in formulas, and it is the flow or rate of electric charge. This flowing electric charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a metallic conductor or electronic components such as resistors or transistors as an example. The unit of electrical current is the ampere, named after a French mathematician, Andre Marie Ampere. Electrical voltage is represented by the letter "V" in formulas and it is the electrical pressure a moving charge is under. In the case of a static charge, one that is not moving, then voltage is the potential difference or pressure of the charge. The relationship between current (I), resistance (R), and voltage (V) is represented by the formulas developed in Ohm's law.
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Resistance
Resistance is the opposition to current flow in various degrees. The practical unit of resistance is called the ohm. A resistor on one ohm is physically very large but provides only a small resistance to current flow. A resistor of one million ohm's is physically small but presents a high resistance to current flow. A resistance that develops 0.24 calorie of heat when one ampere of current flows through it for one second has one ohm of resistance. The unit of resistance is often represented by the Greek letter omega. Resistors are often made of thin layers of carbon or lengths of small copper wire. They can also be thin deposited layers of metallic material.
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Resistance
RESISTORS AND RESISTOR CIRCUITS Resistors can be connected in series (end to end), or in parallel (across one another), or in a combination of series and parallel. If we connect two, 1/4 watt, 100 ohm resistors across one another (i.e. in parallel) then the total resistance in ohms is one half of one of the resistors. In this example the resistance would be 50 ohms. The wattage doubles as the current is now split between the two resistors. If the two resistors were connected end-to-end (i.e. in series) the resistances add and in this case would be 200 ohms. The wattage in this series case stays the same, 1/4 watt.
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Resistance

RESISTORS IN SERIES: Connecting resistors in a string one pigtail to another is called connecting them in series. When connected this way the resistance of one resistor adds to the next in line. For example a 100 ohm resistor in series with a 500 ohm resistor is the same as having a 600 ohm resistor. The wattage capability stays the same, in other words if the resistors are all 1/4 watt the string is 1/4 watt. Resistance in series resistance simply adds: R = R1 + R2. This can be extended for more resistors: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + ...
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Resistance
RESISTORS IN PARALLEL: When resistors are connected in parallel (parallel; meaning they are tied across one another) their combined resistance is less than any of the individual resistances. There is a special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1 and R2: Combined resistance of two resistors in parallel: R = R1 R2 /R1 + R2
Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less than any of the individual resistances. Resistor values are measured in ohms. A thousand ohms is written as 1k to eliminate all the zeros. The k represents three zeros. A million ohms is represented by 1M. Therefore; 1000 ohms = 1k ohm and 1000k ohms = 1M ohm. Since resistors are so small their value is marked by a color code
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Resistance
RESISTOR COLOR CODES - Resistors use color coded stripes to indicate their value in ohms.
Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White

0 1 2 3

6 7 8

OHMS LAW
The potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it. The constant of proportionality is called the "resistance", R. Ohm's Law is given by: V=IR
Material that obeys Ohm's Law is called "ohmic" or "linear" because the potential difference across it varies linearly with the current.

Below is a graphic chart showing the various relationships between resistance, current, voltage, and power and shows how one unknown can be calculated if you know the other two.

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CAPACITORS

A capacitor is a device that stores an electrical charge when a potential difference (voltage) exists between two conductors which are usually two plates separated by a dielectric material (an insulating material like air, paper, or special chemicals between two sheets of aluminum foil). Capacitors block DC voltages and pass AC voltages.
They are used as filters, AC coupling capacitors and as by-pass capacitors. They are also used in conjunction with resistors and inductors to form tuned circuits and timing circuits. A capacitors value C (in Farads) is dependent upon the ratio of the charge Q (in Coulombs) divided by the V (in volts). Common capacitors come in values of microfarads or Pico farads.
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CAPACITOR Value Conversions: Some capacitors may be marked in micro farads and others of the same capacitance value marked in Pico farads. One Pico farad equals one micro-micro farad. You may need to make conversions between the two equivalents.
Prefix Mili Micro Nano Pico Power of 10 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 Example .001 .000001 .000000001 .000000000001

Micro F = Pico F Pico = uuf so; .01uf = 10000 pf .001uf = 1000 pf .005uf = 5000 pf .009uf = 9000 pf .0001uf = 100 pf .0005uf = 500 pf .0009uf = 900 pf
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A capacitor marked 104M is a .001 uf +- 20% A capacitor marked 103M is a .01 uf +- 20% A capacitor marked 102M is a .1 uf +- 20%

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INDUCTORS

Inductors are usually made with coils of wire. The wire coils are wound around iron cores, ferrite cores, or other materials except in the case of an air core inductor where there is no core other than air.
The inductor stores electrical charge in magnetic fields. When the magnetic field collapses it induces an electrical charge back into the wire. Inductors are associated with circuit capacitance and can form a tuned circuit and resonate at a particular frequency.

Two coils close to one another, as they are in a transformer, literally transfer charge from one coil to the other. This is called mutual inductance.
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QUERIES

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