23 visualizações

Enviado por Rahul Verma

basic of electronics

- Build a Low cost Magnetic Pulser
- Understanding Electronics Components
- GT S5830B Troubleshooting
- Clap Switch
- HOW IS GALGOTIA COLLEGE FOR ENGINEERING
- Ex3 Phys 155 Test
- Capstone Project 2 Final
- 312 54_OSS_1 Set A Physics.pdf
- Ee Question Ram
- Physics Paper II Board Pattern 2010
- STPM Trial 2009 Phy (Pahang)
- capacitor
- Electrical Inpection
- Us 2761999
- NV27-Measuring Water Level.pdf
- A2 Electrostatics
- Traveling Wave
- Drude Tesla Coils 1605.04196
- 1_Pes2160Spr2011PreLab5
- Electrical Fundamental 1 - Course Outline

Você está na página 1de 23

Everyone today is exposed to electronic devices in one way or another. The computer revolution is a good example. Everyone can benefit from additional knowledge of electronics. Even a quick scanning of this page will help.

A study of electronics starts with electricity, magnetism and basic electronics. This includes Ohm's law and other basic principles of electricity.

Rahul Kumar Verma 2

Basic Electricity

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BASICS

It all starts with the electrons moving around atoms. Electricity is the movement of electrical charge from one place to another. Electric charges do not exist without their associated electric and magnetic fields. This module will introduce you to many of the basic concepts involved with electricity and magnetism.

Basic Electricity

MATTER Matter is physically everything that exists that we can touch and feel. Matter consists of atoms. Now we will introduce you to the structure of atoms, talk about electrons and static charge, moving charges, voltage, resistance, and current. All matter can be classified as being either a pure substance or a mixture. Matter can exist as either a solid, liquid, or a gas and can change among these three states of matter. In electronics the most important matter are conductive metals, non-conductive insulators, and semi-conductor materials like silicon and germanium.

Rahul Kumar Verma 4

Basic Electricity

ELECTRICAL CHARGE Any object or particle is or can become electrically charged. Nobody completely understands what this charge consists of but we do know a lot about how it reacts and behaves. The smallest known charge of electricity is the charge associated with an electron. This charge has been called a "negative" charge. An atoms nucleus has a positive charge. These two un-like charges attract one another. Like charges oppose one another.

Basic Electricity

ELECTRICAL CHARGE If you had 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 (6.25 x 10^18) electrons in a box you would have what has been named; one coulomb of charge. When electrical charges are at rest, meaning they are not moving, we call that static electricity. If charges are in motion we then have a flow of charge called electrical current. We have given the force that causes this current a name called electromotive force and it is measured by a unit called a volt (V). The unit of measurement of the current (I) or movement of the charge is called an ampere. The resistance, or opposition, to current flow is called an ohm (R).

Rahul Kumar Verma 6

Basic Electricity

ELECTRICAL FIELDS - Around a charge is an electric field. With every electric field there is a magnetic field. While we can't see these fields, or yet know exactly what they consist of, we can measure them with instruments and tell a great deal about their behavior. The design and construction of electric motors, computers, radios, televisions, stereos, and many other electrical and electronic devices depend upon a knowledge of these basic principles of electricity. Mr. Volt, Mr. Ampere, and Mr. Ohm spent many years of their lives studying electricity. They were not alone however as many other scientist were studying and learning more about electricity as well.

Rahul Kumar Verma 7

Basic Electricity

WATTS - POWER A watt is the International System unit of power equal to one joule per second. The symbol used for a watt is "P" for power. Power in watts is found by multiplying a circuits current (I) times its voltage (V). P = I*V

Moving electric charges are the heart of basic electronics. Knowing what moving charges are and how various electronic components affect the moving charges is the foundation of basic electronics.

Basic Electronics

Electronics puts a knowledge of electricity to useful Work. Electronics applies electrical current flow of electrical charges to circuits to accomplish specific tasks. Amplifiers can be constructed from glass "tubes" containing metal elements, or more commonly today with solid state diodes, transistors, or integrated circuits. An amplifier is simply a device or circuit that takes a small signal input and controls a larger current as it output. The input signal voltage is small and the output voltage is larger amplified.

Basic Electronics

A circuit containing wire conductors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and amplifiers can be configured in many ways to build various electronic circuits like oscillators, digital logic circuits, computer circuits, television and video circuits and much more. An oscillator by the way is just an amplifier with some of the output fed back into the input. Sounds like a perpetual motion machine but it isn't as the amplifiers power supply is providing the additional energy that is lost in the circuit and keeps the circulation, i.e. oscillations going

10

Electrical current, represented by the letter "I" in formulas, and it is the flow or rate of electric charge. This flowing electric charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a metallic conductor or electronic components such as resistors or transistors as an example. The unit of electrical current is the ampere, named after a French mathematician, Andre Marie Ampere. Electrical voltage is represented by the letter "V" in formulas and it is the electrical pressure a moving charge is under. In the case of a static charge, one that is not moving, then voltage is the potential difference or pressure of the charge. The relationship between current (I), resistance (R), and voltage (V) is represented by the formulas developed in Ohm's law.

Rahul Kumar Verma 11

Resistance

Resistance is the opposition to current flow in various degrees. The practical unit of resistance is called the ohm. A resistor on one ohm is physically very large but provides only a small resistance to current flow. A resistor of one million ohm's is physically small but presents a high resistance to current flow. A resistance that develops 0.24 calorie of heat when one ampere of current flows through it for one second has one ohm of resistance. The unit of resistance is often represented by the Greek letter omega. Resistors are often made of thin layers of carbon or lengths of small copper wire. They can also be thin deposited layers of metallic material.

Rahul Kumar Verma 12

Resistance

RESISTORS AND RESISTOR CIRCUITS Resistors can be connected in series (end to end), or in parallel (across one another), or in a combination of series and parallel. If we connect two, 1/4 watt, 100 ohm resistors across one another (i.e. in parallel) then the total resistance in ohms is one half of one of the resistors. In this example the resistance would be 50 ohms. The wattage doubles as the current is now split between the two resistors. If the two resistors were connected end-to-end (i.e. in series) the resistances add and in this case would be 200 ohms. The wattage in this series case stays the same, 1/4 watt.

Rahul Kumar Verma 13

Resistance

RESISTORS IN SERIES: Connecting resistors in a string one pigtail to another is called connecting them in series. When connected this way the resistance of one resistor adds to the next in line. For example a 100 ohm resistor in series with a 500 ohm resistor is the same as having a 600 ohm resistor. The wattage capability stays the same, in other words if the resistors are all 1/4 watt the string is 1/4 watt. Resistance in series resistance simply adds: R = R1 + R2. This can be extended for more resistors: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + ...

Rahul Kumar Verma

Resistance

RESISTORS IN PARALLEL: When resistors are connected in parallel (parallel; meaning they are tied across one another) their combined resistance is less than any of the individual resistances. There is a special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1 and R2: Combined resistance of two resistors in parallel: R = R1 R2 /R1 + R2

Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less than any of the individual resistances. Resistor values are measured in ohms. A thousand ohms is written as 1k to eliminate all the zeros. The k represents three zeros. A million ohms is represented by 1M. Therefore; 1000 ohms = 1k ohm and 1000k ohms = 1M ohm. Since resistors are so small their value is marked by a color code

Rahul Kumar Verma

Resistance

RESISTOR COLOR CODES - Resistors use color coded stripes to indicate their value in ohms.

Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White

0 1 2 3

6 7 8

OHMS LAW

The potential difference (voltage) across an ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it. The constant of proportionality is called the "resistance", R. Ohm's Law is given by: V=IR

Material that obeys Ohm's Law is called "ohmic" or "linear" because the potential difference across it varies linearly with the current.

Below is a graphic chart showing the various relationships between resistance, current, voltage, and power and shows how one unknown can be calculated if you know the other two.

CAPACITORS

A capacitor is a device that stores an electrical charge when a potential difference (voltage) exists between two conductors which are usually two plates separated by a dielectric material (an insulating material like air, paper, or special chemicals between two sheets of aluminum foil). Capacitors block DC voltages and pass AC voltages.

They are used as filters, AC coupling capacitors and as by-pass capacitors. They are also used in conjunction with resistors and inductors to form tuned circuits and timing circuits. A capacitors value C (in Farads) is dependent upon the ratio of the charge Q (in Coulombs) divided by the V (in volts). Common capacitors come in values of microfarads or Pico farads.

Rahul Kumar Verma

CAPACITOR Value Conversions: Some capacitors may be marked in micro farads and others of the same capacitance value marked in Pico farads. One Pico farad equals one micro-micro farad. You may need to make conversions between the two equivalents.

Prefix Mili Micro Nano Pico Power of 10 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 Example .001 .000001 .000000001 .000000000001

Micro F = Pico F Pico = uuf so; .01uf = 10000 pf .001uf = 1000 pf .005uf = 5000 pf .009uf = 9000 pf .0001uf = 100 pf .0005uf = 500 pf .0009uf = 900 pf

Rahul Kumar Verma

A capacitor marked 104M is a .001 uf +- 20% A capacitor marked 103M is a .01 uf +- 20% A capacitor marked 102M is a .1 uf +- 20%

INDUCTORS

Inductors are usually made with coils of wire. The wire coils are wound around iron cores, ferrite cores, or other materials except in the case of an air core inductor where there is no core other than air.

The inductor stores electrical charge in magnetic fields. When the magnetic field collapses it induces an electrical charge back into the wire. Inductors are associated with circuit capacitance and can form a tuned circuit and resonate at a particular frequency.

Two coils close to one another, as they are in a transformer, literally transfer charge from one coil to the other. This is called mutual inductance.

Rahul Kumar Verma

QUERIES

23

- Build a Low cost Magnetic PulserEnviado porHaSophim
- Understanding Electronics ComponentsEnviado pornamemamun
- GT S5830B TroubleshootingEnviado porRafael Smith
- Clap SwitchEnviado porvsmishra1992
- HOW IS GALGOTIA COLLEGE FOR ENGINEERINGEnviado porchanchalrv
- Ex3 Phys 155 TestEnviado porTarget1020
- Capstone Project 2 FinalEnviado porAmarjeet Singh
- 312 54_OSS_1 Set A Physics.pdfEnviado porsandeepjangra15
- Ee Question RamEnviado porNaidu RB G
- Physics Paper II Board Pattern 2010Enviado pornitin
- STPM Trial 2009 Phy (Pahang)Enviado porSimPor
- capacitorEnviado porRadha Vidatala
- Electrical InpectionEnviado porChea Virak
- Us 2761999Enviado porajalbornoz
- NV27-Measuring Water Level.pdfEnviado pormagnetrol
- A2 ElectrostaticsEnviado porWade Gibson
- Traveling WaveEnviado porvenki249
- Drude Tesla Coils 1605.04196Enviado porGwg Gegi
- 1_Pes2160Spr2011PreLab5Enviado porJordan Tingson
- Electrical Fundamental 1 - Course OutlineEnviado porArief Azaraz
- 1IJEEERJUN20191Enviado porTJPRC Publications
- 10. Electronic DraftingEnviado porwhatrich
- ght4646Enviado porJosue Marshall
- 1676fEnviado porquyen2012
- 242 lab-1Enviado porGeorge Pace
- Lm3909 ApplicationsEnviado porpre freeda
- AniketPEnviado porAvik Das
- U15Enviado porKapildev Kumar
- 1569Enviado porfarhan
- Electromagnetic Fields 3Enviado porJyothsna Vayyala

- Artificial Leaf Harnear sses Sunlight for Efficient Fuel ProductionEnviado porAlf. Andres I. Karrnakis
- uc3525aEnviado porkkaytug
- mur120Enviado portakumahojo
- ch23a.pptEnviado porThiran Boy Lingam
- ece546fall11_14Enviado pordkarpur
- Electro Plating Reference -2014Enviado porChris Radieve
- Optical Ribbon Fiber ResourceEnviado porNilay
- DE07_solEnviado porvishwanathbrungi
- 6_pic16f877_timerccpEnviado porSalah Dahouathi
- Aero 4th SemEnviado porAerocse Eceitmech
- til311 datasheetEnviado porgetmicros
- 09081 a 0431Enviado pordrems_salman
- Equs for PresEnviado porgrantdheileman
- Logic Tool User GuideEnviado porspades_94
- 02 PrecautionEnviado porrodel alfaro
- 9A04502 Linear IC ApplicationsEnviado porsivabharathamurthy
- doorEnviado porsegundo
- 50px4d Lg Plasma Tv Df-054bEnviado porAlberto Alberto
- Modeling and Control of PV ChargerEnviado porBhukya Mangu
- Samsung Microwave Model CE2733R Service ManualEnviado porplymplan
- A Zener Diode by Muhammad Arif RattarEnviado porMuhammad Arif Rattar
- c791.pdfEnviado porOctavio Cotillo Lubián
- Arduino_Electronic_Modules_DS3231-_AT24C32-_I2C1602-_MFRC522-_ESP8266_(Arduino_Electronic_Modules_Series).pdfEnviado porAnonymous JSTQMvj
- A New Dimmable 70W Electronic Ballast for HPS Lamps - Cavalcante_IAS02Enviado porlbk50
- Touch SwitchEnviado pormusbikhinoke
- Review of Strain SensorEnviado porjaskaurwork
- UntitledEnviado porRitesh Sharma
- Electron Beams and Oscilloscope (1)Enviado porAkachukwu Oguine
- Elemis885_TelestarPT92Enviado porAlex Simon
- VHDL code for quadrature encoder receiver module » dewplanetEnviado porcakunza