Você está na página 1de 35

Enzymes

Chapter 5
Lesson
Objectives
Questions to answer!
2. What are enzymes?
a. State the definition of enzymes.
3. How do enzymes work?
• Explain the mode of action of enzymes in
terms of active site, enzyme-substrate
complex, lowering of activation energy,
and enzyme specificity.
• Describe the characteristics of enzymes.
3. What affects enzyme activity?
• Investigate and explain the effects of
temperature, pH, on the rate of enzyme-
catalyzed reactions.
5. Where are enzymes used?
a. State 1 enzyme-catalyzed process.
b. Classify enzymes.
What are Definition of
enzymes?
Enzymes
Recall: What are
What are catalysts?
proteins?? How do they
Enzymes are biologicalwork?
catalysts,
commonly made of protein. They
alter the rate of chemical reactions
without themselves being chemically
changed at the end of the reaction.

Properties of
enzymes
What are
enzymes? Recall: Proteins
• Basic unit of proteins:
amino acids
• How amino acids are linkedcondensation
up:
reaction
peptide
• Link between amino polypeptide
acids: bond
• Long chains of basic units:
• Polypeptides
weak bondsare folded and its 3D shape is
held together by .
• Weak bonds candenatured
be broken by heat and
chemicals. The protein is said to be
function .
• A denatured protein loses its .
Source: http://www.monroecc.
edu/deps/pstc/backup/heme.gif
How do
enzymes
Enzymes are
work? Biological Catalysts
• A catalyst is a substance which can alter or
speed up a chemical reaction.
• Catalysts are not chemically-changed at the
end of the reaction.
How do
enzymes
Enzymes are
work? Biological Catalysts

Eg: Decomposition of Hydrogen


Peroxide…
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2

This reaction can be sped up by a catalyst,


manganese (IV) oxide.

Videos:
Dilute H2O2: H2O2 decomposition
Fresh H2O2: Last High School Chemistry Class

Source: http://pics.drugstore.
com/prodimg/73864/200.jpg
How do
enzymes
Enzymes are
work? Biological Catalysts

Eg: Decomposition of Hydrogen


Peroxide…
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2

This reaction can be sped up by a catalyst,


Inorganic
manganese (IV) Catalyst
oxide.
MnO2
(catalyst)

2H2O2 2H2O + O2 + Heat

The same amount of manganese (IV)


How do
enzymes
Enzymes are
work? Biological Catalysts

The enzyme CATALASE can speed up hydrogen


peroxide decomposition.
Biological
Catalyst
Enzymes are BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS.
(Organic)

Video: Nosebleed Chemistry


Note:
Catalase is
Catalase also found in
2H2O2 (enzyme) 2H2O + potatoes!
O2 + Heat

How do enzymes
How do
enzymes
Activation
work? Energy
• The energy needed to start a chemical
reaction is called activation energy.
• Once the reaction has received enough
energy, the rest of the reaction occurs
spontaneously.
How do
enzymes
Activation
work? Energy
• Enzymes lower the activation energy required
to start a chemical reaction.

• Enzymes do not
change the
energy level of
reactants and
Products
products.
Reactants • Enzymes only
lower the ‘height’
of the ‘activation
energy hill.’
How do
enzymes
Lock and Key
work? Hypothesis
• The substances on which enzymes act are called
substrates.
• Enzymes bind to substrates by the lock and key
enzyme molecule
hypothesis.
active enzyme
is free to take part
in another
sites molecule
reaction
(the ‘lock’)

B AB

substrate enzyme-
a new substance
molecules (A substrate
(product) AB leaves
and B) can fit complex
the active sites
into the active
sites
How do
enzymes
Lock and Key
work? Hypothesis
• Enzyme reaction depends on the presence of
active sites.
• Active sites have a specific 3D shape.
• Specific substrate molecules fit into the active
site like a lock and key.
• Substrate binds to the enzyme, forming an
enzyme substrate complex.
• Reactions take place at the active sites to
convert substrate molecule(s) into product
molecule(s).
• Product molecule(s) separate, leaving the
enzyme molecule unchanged and free to
How do
enzymes
Induced Fit
work? Model
• Current hypothesis for enzyme action
• When a substrate molecule fits into an enzyme
molecule, the enzyme molecule alters its
shape slightly so that it fits more tightly
around the substrate molecule.
• This makes the chemical reaction easier.

Lock and key hypothesis Induced Fit Model


Source: http://neurobio.drexel.edu/GalloWeb/loudon_enzymes.htm
How do
enzymes
Enzyme
work? Characteristics
Enzymes are required in minute amounts
• Enzymes are very efficient molecules.
• They remain unchanged at the end of the
reaction, and thus can be reused over and
over again.
small large
• A amount amount
of enzyme can catalyze a
of chemical reactions.
How do
enzymes
Enzyme
work? Characteristics
Enzyme Specificity
• Enzyme action is highly specific: each
chemical reaction is catalyzed by a unique
enzyme.
• The enzyme’s specificity is due to its 3-
dimensional surface configuration.
• The shape of the substrate must be
complementary to the shape of the enzyme’s
active site.
• The shape of an enzyme can be affected by
high temperature and acids and alkalis.
How do
enzymes
Enzyme
work? Characteristics
Enzymes catalyze reversible reactions
• Some reactions in living cells are reversible.
They can proceed in the forward or backward
direction.
• Some enzymes catalyze both forward and
backward reactions until an equilibrium is
reached. This occurs when the amount of
reactants equals the amount of products
formed.
How do
enzymes
Enzyme
work? Characteristics
Some enzymes require coenzymes
• Some enzymes require a coenzyme (another
compound) to be bound to them before they
can catalyze reactions.
• Coenzymes are non-protein organic
compounds.
• Eg. of coenzymes: Vitamin B complex
What affects
enzyme
activity?
4 Factors

Enzymes are affected by the following:


• Temperature
• pH
• Enzyme concentration
• Substrate concentration
What affects
enzyme
activity?
Temperature

• Enzymes have an optimum temperature.


• This is the temperature at which the enzyme
catalyzes the largest number of reactions per
second.
• The optimum temperature of enzymes varies
in different organisms, and is often but not
always close to the temperature at which the
enzyme usually functions.
• Some enzymes may have very high or very
low optimum temperatures.
What affects
enzyme
activity?
Temperature
3 The optimum temperature is
Rate of reaction reached. Enzyme is most active.
(enzyme activity)

4 Beyond the
2 As the temperature optimum
rises, enzyme activity temperature,
increases as indicated enzyme activity
by the increase in the decreases.
rate of reaction it
catalyses. Usually the 5 At point D, the
enzyme is twice as enzyme has lost its
1 An
active for every 10°C ability to catalyse
enzyme is
rise in temperature the reaction.
less active
until the optimum
at very low
temperature is
temperatur
reached.
es.

0 K (optimum D Temperature
temperature)
What affects
enzyme
activity?
Temperature
As temperature rises…
• Particles of matter are in constant random
motion.
• In the reaction, the enzyme and substrate
molecules move and collide with one another
at random.
• Raising the temperature increases the kinetic
energy of the molecules.
• The substrate and enzyme molecules collide
with each other more often, increasing the
chance of substrates fitting into active sites.
• The rate of formation of enzyme-substrate
complex increases, increasing the rate of
What affects
enzyme
activity?
Temperature
As temperature rises…
• Enzyme activity increases as the temperature
increases up to the optimum temperature.
• At high temperatures, enzyme activity
decreases. protei
• Enzymes are made
weakofns , and its 3D
shape are heldbonds
together by .
• At high temperatures, the vibrations of the
atoms in the enzyme vibrate so violently that
they break the weak bonds in the enzyme.
• The enzyme loses its shape and becomes
denatured.
• The higher the temperature, the faster the
What affects
enzyme
activity?
pH

• Enzymes are affected by the acidity or


alkalinity of the solutions they are in.
• Acid or alkali can interact with the enzyme
molecule, causing the protein to change its
shape.
• Extreme changes in pH of the solutions
denature the enzymes.
• Enzymes also have an optimum pH – the pH at
which the enzyme can best function in.
What affects
enzyme
activity?
pH
What affects
enzyme
Enzyme & Substrate
activity? Concentration
What affects
enzyme
Enzyme & Substrate
activity? Concentration
• In a solution of fixed enzyme concentration, as
substrate concentration increases, the rate of
reaction increases to a maximum.
• Beyond the maximum point, increasing the
substrate concentration will not increase the
rate of reaction.
• This is because at any point of time, all the
enzyme molecules are in use. The enzyme
molecules are saturated.
• The enzyme concentration becomes the
limiting factor.
• The reaction rate will increase if the enzyme
concentration is increased.
Where are
enzymes
used?
Digestion
• Some food molecules are large and insoluble
in water. diffu
• These food molecules cannot se through
the cell surface membrane. protei
• Some
starcexamples ns are
of large food molecules
fats
h , and .
• The large molecules must first be converted
into simpler smaller substances which are
soluble in water and diffusible.
• This is known as digestion, and is achieved by
digestive enzymes.
Where are
enzymes
used?
Digestion
Enzymes are involved in two types of reactions
in the body:
• Synthesis of complex substances from
simpler ones HYDROLYTIC
• Break down of complex substances to
REACTIONS
CONDENSATI Examples of hydrolysis in the body:
simpler
ON
ones • Large molecules of food are converted
REACTION to smaller molecules by digestive
Examples of enzymes.
condensation • In cell respiration, glucose is broken
reactionsstarch
in the down to carbon dioxide and water and
body: release energy.
• Forming • Hydrogen peroxide can be produced in
from glucose
amino chemical reactions in cells. It is toxic to
• Forming
acidsproteins tissues. Cells produce enzyme catalase
Enzymes catalyze practically ALL
from which catalyses the breakdown of
the chemical reactions that occur in
hydrogen peroxide.
Where are
enzymes
Classification of
used? Enzymes
• Enzymes are classified according to the
chemical reactions they catalyze.
• Enzymes that catalyze hydrolytic reactions
are known as hydrolases.
• Oxidation-reduction enzymes are involved in
breaking down glucose during respiration.
• Enzymes were previously named by the
persons who discovered them.
• Nowadays, enzymes are named according to
a scientific system.
Where are
enzymes
Classification of
used? Enzymes

Type of Example(s)
hydrolase
Carbohydras •Salivary amylase (in the mouth)
es digest and pancreatic amylase. Both
carbohydrates digest starch.
•Cellulases digest cellulose. It is
Proteases •produced by some
Pepsin in the bacteria. It is
stomach
digest proteins not found in mammals.
Lipases •Lipase in pancreatic juice
digest lipids
(fats)
Where are
enzymes
used?
Industrial Uses
• Enzymes are used in industry as they can
bring about chemical changes at low
temperature.
• Chemical reactions at low temperatures are
easier to control and cheaper to run.
• Enzymes can be extracted from living cells
and used in their pure form.
Where are
enzymes
used?
Industrial Uses
• Microorganisms producing useful enzymes
can be used in industry to make cheese,
yoghurt and beer.
• Catalase can be added to latex containing
hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen to form
foam rubber.
• Enzyme specificity makes them ideal for use
in analysing chemicals.
– Enzymes can be used to detect glucose in urine.
– This can help to detect diabetes.

Source: Source: http://news.thomasnet.com/


http://www.southernbiological.com/Products/ images/large/011/11187.jpg
Pure Biology Chapter 5
Definition of enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts,
commonly made of protein. They
alter the rate of chemical Enzymes
reactions without themselves have specific are
being chemically changed at the
end of the reaction.
Functions
Proteins
as
Remain chemically
unchanged at the Biological catalysts are
end of the reaction
form speed up

Enzyme-substrate Rate of affected by


complex reaction Inactivated Denatured
Enzyme Substrate pH Temperature
with the by concentration concentration at low at high
help of
by lowering are

Lock-and-key Induced-fit Activation of at extreme


Coenzymes Chemical reactions
hypothesis model energy
involve

Intracellular Extracellular found in Digestive


enzymes enzymes system
examples
is the

Specific binding
of enzyme Lipases Proteases Carbohydrases

to digest digest digest

Substrate Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates

to form to form to form to form

Specific Fatty acids Amino Simple


product(s) and glycerol acids sugars
Pure Biology Chapter 5
Definition of enzymes

Enzymes
have specific are

Functions

as
Remain chemically
unchanged at the Biological catalysts are
end of the reaction
form speed up

Enzyme-substrate Rate of affected by


complex reaction Inactivated Denatured
Enzyme Substrate
with the by concentration concentration at low at high
help of
by lowering are

Induced-fit of at extreme changes of


Coenzymes Chemical reactions
model
involve

Intracellular Extracellular found in


enzymes enzymes
examples
is the

Specific binding
of enzyme Lipases

to digest digest digest

Substrate Proteins Carbohydrates

to form to form to form to form

Specific Simple
product(s) sugars