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 Why did I choose my major subject?

 What course has excited me and why?


 Do I prefer team or individual projects?
 What career do I pursue in life?
 Do I have enough skills and education for

this career?
(video clip)
Source: Powel (1974), Career Planning and Placement for College Graduate p.6
By:

 Krishna K. Bista

April 23, 2009


 A professor emeritus of psychology and
education at Teachers college, Columbia
University.
 Received his Doctor of Science degree from
Oxford University.
 His books: Appraising Vocational Fitness, The
psychology of Careers, Computer Assisted
Counseling, Measuring Vocational Maturity, and
Career development in Britain.
 Used psychological tests for vocational
counseling and personnel selection.
 His research has omitted women, people of
color and the poor.
Super (1976) defined career as--
“the course of events which constitutes a life; the
sequence of occupations and other life roles combine
to express one’s commitment to work in his or her
total pattern of self-development . . . Careers exist
only as people pursue them; they are person-
centered. It is this last notion of careers, ‘they exist
only as people pursue them,’ which summarizes
much of the rationale for career guidance.” (p. 4)
 Self-concept theory
Behavior is a reflection of an individual
Selection or rejection of an occupation
depends upon his or her belief
 Developmental psychology

life in the scale of five distinct stages


career development is built upon the
framework of these life stages
Individuals’ self-concepts play central roles
in their career choices
During adolescence individuals first
construct a career self-concept
Develop ideas about work
Crystallize or narrow their choices
Begin to initiate behavior for some type of
career
Begin specific training for a career
In later life, begin to consolidate & engage
in career enhancement
 As one matures, his/her self-
concept becomes stable
 Vocational decisions of

adolescence are different from


adults
 Diverse vocational behaviors can

be better understand by viewing


changing life cycle/stage
Stable pattern-
Conventional pattern
Unstable pattern
Multiple trial pattern

FACTORS:
Psychological, physical, situational &
societal
5 Life Stages
Growth
Exploration
Establishment
Maintenance
Disengagement/Decline
Stage Age Characteristics

Growth Birth-14 Development of self-concept,


attitudes, needs and general
world of work

Exploratio 15-24 “Trying out” through classes,


n work hobbies. Tentative choice
and skill development
Establishment 25-44 Entry-level skill building and
stabilization through work
experience

Maintenance 45-64 Continual adjustment


process to improver position

Decline 65+ Reduced output, prepare for


retirement
Early Middle Late
Adolescence
Life stage adulthood 25- adulthood 45-adulthood
14-25
45 65 65+
Giving less time to Reducing sports Focusing on Reducing
Decline
hobbies participation essentials working hours
Verifying current Making Holding one's
Keeping what
Maintenance occupational occupational own against
one enjoys
choice position secure competition

Getting started Settling down in a Developing new Doing things one


Establishment
in a chosen field suitable position skills has wanted to do

Learning more Identifying new Finding a good


Finding desired
Exploration about tasks to retirement
opportunity
opportunities work on place
Developing and
Developing a
Learning to Accepting one's valuing non-
Growth realistic self-
relate to others own limitations occupational
concept
roles
 Life Space – “Theatres”
 Child  Citizen  Spouse
 Student  Worker  Parent

 Leisurite  Homemaker  Pensione


r
1. The crystallization stage, ages 14-18
-formulate ideas about appropriate work
-differentiate of interests & values
2. Specification stage, ages 18-21
-awareness of the need to specify
-planning for preferred occupation
3. Implementation stage, ages 21-24
-executing plans to qualify for entry
-obtaining an entry job
4. The stabilization stage, ages 24-35
-planning for stabilization
-accepting the inevitability
5. Consolidation, age 35
-planning for consolidation &
advancement
6. Readiness for retirement, age 55
-planning of retirement
 People differ in their abilities, interests
and personalities.
 They qualify by the virtue of these

characteristics.
 Self concept changes according to time and

experience.
 Vocational pattern may be summed up in a

series of life stages.


 There are various roles and factors in

choosing a profession.
 Think Career Planning
 Explore Career Options
 Update to the World-of-Work
 Enhance Knowledge and Skills
 Make Career Decision Skills
 Identifythe stages of learners
 Point out the potentiality of learners
 Focus on their interests, abilities &

personalities
 Motivate towards life-roles and

responsibilities
 Acknowledge the dynamic world of

work
 Super’s greatest contribution to career
development emphases on the role of self-
concept development.
 Super recognized that the self-concept
changes and develops as a result of
experience.
 People successively refine their self-
concept(s) over time, and application to the
world of work creates suitable career.
Brown, D, and Brooks, L (Eds), Career Choice and Development: Applying Contemporary Theories to
Practice , San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.
Brown, L. Brooks, & Assoc. (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
Bass
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dawis, R.V. (1996). The theory of work adjustment and person-environment-corresopnce counselling. In
D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Assoc. (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed.) San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass. (pp. 179-232).
Holland, J.L. (1997). Making vocational choices (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Krumboltz, J.D. (1994). Inmproving career development theory from a social learning theory perepective.
In M.L. Savickas & R.W. Lent (Eds.), Convergence in career development theory (pp. 9-32). Palo Alto,
CA: CPP Books.
Super, D.E., Savickas, M.L., & Super, C.M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In D.
Brown, L. Brooks, & Assoc. (Eds.), Career Choice and development (3rd ed.) (pp. 121-178). San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Super, D.E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown & L. Brooks
(Eds.) Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed.), p. 216.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Osipow, S. H. (1973). The theories of career development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
Young, R.A., Valach, L., & Collin, A. (1996). A contextual explanation of career. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, &
Assoc. (Eds.), Career Choice and development (3rd ed.) (pp. 477-512). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
Bass.
Any
 Occupation: Match of the individual and
the career
 Career: develop from developmental

psychology
 Vocation: mixed of both