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# Consider the quadratic equation x

2
+ 1 = 0.

Solving for x , gives x
2
= 1
1
2
= x
1 = x
We make the following definition:
1 = i
Complex Numbers

1 = i
Complex Numbers
1
2
= i Note that squaring both sides yields:
therefore

and

so

and
i i i i i = = = * 1 *
1 3
2
1 ) 1 ( * ) 1 ( *
2 2 4
= = = i i i
i i i i i = = = * 1 *
4 5
1 * 1 *
2 2 4 6
= = = i i i i
And so on

Real Numbers
Imaginary
Numbers
Real numbers and imaginary numbers are
subsets of the set of complex numbers.

Complex Numbers
Definition of a Complex Number
If a and b are real numbers, the number a + bi is a
complex number, and it is said to be written in
standard form.
If b = 0, the number a + bi = a is a real number.
If a = 0, the number a + bi is called an imaginary
number.

Write the complex number in standard form
8 1 + = + = 8 1 i
= - + 2 4 1 i 2 2 1 i +
Numbers
If a + bi and c +di are two complex numbers written
in standard form, their sum and difference are
defined as follows.
i ) d b ( ) c a ( ) di c ( ) bi a ( + + + = + + +
i ) d b ( ) c a ( ) di c ( ) bi a ( + = + +
Sum:
Difference:
Perform the subtraction and write the answer
in standard form.
( 3 + 2i ) ( 6 + 13i )
3 + 2i 6 13i
3 11i

2 3 4 18 8 i + +
2 3 4 2 9 8 i i + - +
2 3 4 2 3 8 i i +
4
Multiplying Complex Numbers

Multiplying complex numbers is similar to
multiplying polynomials and combining like terms.

Perform the operation and write the result in
standard form. ( 6 2i )( 2 3i )
F O I L
12 18i 4i + 6i
2

12 22i + 6 ( -1 )
6 22i
Consider ( 3 + 2i )( 3 2i )
9 6i + 6i 4i
2

9 4( -1 )
9 + 4
13
This is a real number. The product of two
complex numbers can be a real number.
This concept can be used to divide complex numbers.
Complex Conjugates and Division
Complex conjugates-a pair of complex numbers of
the form a + bi and a bi where a and b are
real numbers.
( a + bi )( a bi )
a
2
abi + abi b
2
i
2

a
2
b
2
( -1 )
a
2
+ b
2

The product of a complex conjugate pair is a
positive real number.
To find the quotient of two complex numbers
multiply the numerator and denominator
by the conjugate of the denominator.
di c
bi a
+
+
di c
di c
di c
bi a

-
+
+
=
2 2
2
d c
+
+
=
2 2
d c
+
+ +
=

Perform the operation and write the result in
standard form.
i
i
2 1
7 6

i
i
i
i
2 1
2 1
2 1
7 6
+
+
-

=
2 2
2
2 1
14 7 12 6
+
+
=
i i i
4 1
5 14 6
+
+ +
=
i
5
5 20 i +
=
5
5
5
20 i
+ =
i + = 4
i i
i

+
4
3 1
i
i
i i
i
i
i
+
+
-

-
+
=
4
4
4
3 1
Perform the operation and write the result
in standard form.
2 2 2
2
1 4
3 12
+
+

+
=
i
i
i i
1 16
3 12
1
1
+
+

+
=
i i
i i
17
3
17
12
1 =
i i
17
3
17
12
1 =
i
17
3 17
17
12 17

= i
17
14
17
5
=

Expressing Complex Numbers
in Polar Form
Now, any Complex Number can be expressed as:
X + Y i
That number can be plotted as on ordered pair in
rectangular form like so
6
4
2
-2
-4
-6
-5 5
Expressing Complex Numbers
in Polar Form
Remember these relationships between polar and
rectangular form:
x
y
= u tan
2 2 2
r y x = +
u cos r x =
u sin r y =
So any complex number, X + Yi, can be written in
polar form:
i r r Yi X u u sin cos + = +
) sin (cos sin cos u u u u i r i r r + = +
u rcis
Here is the shorthand way of writing polar form:
Expressing Complex Numbers
in Polar Form
Rewrite the following complex number in polar form:
4 - 2i
Rewrite the following complex number in
rectangular form:
0
30 7cis
Expressing Complex Numbers
in Polar Form
Express the following complex number in
rectangular form:
)
3
sin
3
(cos 2
t t
i +
Expressing Complex Numbers
in Polar Form
Express the following complex number in
polar form: 5i
Products and Quotients of
Complex Numbers in Polar Form

) sin (cos
1 1 1
u u i r +
The product of two complex numbers,
and
Can be obtained by using the following formula:
) sin (cos
2 2 2
u u i r +
) sin (cos * ) sin (cos
2 2 2 1 1 1
u u u u i r i r + +
)] sin( ) [cos( *
2 1 2 1 2 1
u u u u + + + = i r r
Products and Quotients of
Complex Numbers in Polar Form

) sin (cos
1 1 1
u u i r +
The quotient of two complex numbers,
and
Can be obtained by using the following formula:
) sin (cos
2 2 2
u u i r +
) sin (cos / ) sin (cos
2 2 2 1 1 1
u u u u i r i r + +
)] sin( ) [cos( /
2 1 2 1 2 1
u u u u + = i r r
Products and Quotients of
Complex Numbers in Polar Form

Find the product of 5cis30 and 2cis120
Next, write that product in rectangular form
Products and Quotients of
Complex Numbers in Polar Form

Find the quotient of 36cis300 divided by
4cis120
Next, write that quotient in rectangular form
Products and Quotients of
Complex Numbers in Polar Form

Find the result of
Based on how you answered this problem,
what generalization can we make about
raising a complex number in polar form to
a given power?
4
)) 120 sin 120 (cos 5 ( i +
De Moivres Theorem

De Moivre's Theorem is the theorem which
shows us how to take complex numbers to any
power easily.
De Moivre's Theorem Let r(cos u+isin u) be a
complex number and n be any real number. Then
[r(cos u+isin u]
n
= r
n
(cos nu+isin nu)
What is this saying?
The resulting r value will be r to the n
th
power and the
resulting angle will be n times the original angle.
De Moivres Theorem

Try a sample problem: What is [3(cos 45+isin45)]
5
?
To do this take 3 to the 5
th
power, then multiply 45 times 5
and plug back into trigonometric form.
3
5
= 243 and 45 * 5 =225 so the result is 243(cos 225+isin 225)
Remember to save space you can write it in compact form.

243(cos 225+isin 225)=243cis 225

De Moivres Theorem

Find the result of:
Because of the power involved, it would easier to change this
complex number into polar form and then use De Moivres Theorem.
4
) 1 ( i
De Moivres Theorem

De Moivre's Theorem also works not only for
integer values of powers, but also rational values
(so we can determine roots of complex numbers).

p p
rcis yi x
1 1
) ( ) ( u = +
) ( )
1
* (
1 1
p
cis r
p
cis r
p p
u
u = =
De Moivres Theorem

Simplify the following:
3
1
) 3 4 4 ( i
De Moivres Theorem

Every complex number has p distinct pth complex
roots (2 square roots, 3 cube roots, etc.)
To find the p distinct pth roots of a complex number,
we use the following form of De Moivres Theorem
)
360
( ) (
1 1
p
n
cis r yi x
p p
+
= +
u
where n is all integer values between 0 and p-1.
Why the 360? Well, if we were to graph the complex
roots on a polar graph, we would see that the p roots
would be evenly spaced about 360 degrees (360/p would
tell us how far apart the roots would be).
De Moivres Theorem

Find the 4 distinct 4th roots of -3 - 3i
De Moivres Theorem

Solve the following equation for all complex
number solutions (roots):

0 27
3
= + x