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GSM BTS ANTENNA

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OBJECTIVES
To know GSM Antenna specifications and definitions To identify the difference between space and polarization diversity To comprehend the structure antenna system in a BTS Site
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RADIO WAVES
Is a form of electromagnetic radiation typically generated as disturbances sent out by oscillating charges on a transmitting antenna

Blah blah blah bl ah

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ANTENNA

An Antenna is any device used to collect or radiate Electromagnetic Waves

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ANTENNA for MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

Linear antennas are used:


Monopole (Slab) Dipole Elements
Array of dipoles

Single Monopole Patch Antenna Base Tranceiver Station Antenna Mobile Phones

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ANTENNA ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES


Operating Frequency Band Input impedance VSWR Polarization Gain Radiation Pattern Horizontal/Vertical beamwidth Downtilt Front/back ratio Sidelobe suppression and null filling Power capability 3rd order Intermodulation Insulation
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ANTENNA MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


Size Weight Radome material Appearance and color Working temperature Storage temperature Windload Connector types Package Size Lightning Protection

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ANTENNA BASIC STRUCTURE

Antenna are generally composed of stacked of dipole bundling their radiated power to form a desired antenna pattern in vertical plains around the antenna

Depending on the gain desired that wants to be achieved several of those diploes can be arranged on top of one another

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GENERATION OF RADIO WAVES DIPOLES


Wavelength 1/4 Wavelength 1/2 Wavelength 1/4 Wavelength 1/2 Wavelength Dipole

1800MHz 166mm 900MHz 333mm

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HALF WAVE DIPOLE

1 dipole
Received Power1mW

Multiple dipole matrix


Received Power4 mW

GAIN= 10log(4mW/1mW) = 6dBd

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ISOTROPIC ANTENNA

Antenna (Overlook

Omnidirectional array Received power1mW

Sector antenna Received power8mW

Gain=10log(8mW/1mW) = 9dBi

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dBd and dBi GAIN COMPARISON

Ideal radiating dot source (lossless radiator)

2.15dB

0dBd = 2.15dBi

Dipole

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dBd and dBi GAIN COMPARISON

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ANTENNA ARRAYS

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GSM ANTENNA FREQUENCY RANGE

Type GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM Dual Band

Frequency Range 890 1710 890 1710 960 MHz 1880 MHz 960 MHz 1880 MHz

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GSM ANTENNA FREQUENCY RANGE

Optimum 1/2 wavelength for dipole at 925MHz

at 890 MHz

at 960 MHz Antenna Dipole

BANDWIDTH = 960 - 890 = 70MHz

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IMPEDANCE

Standard Value: 50

Antenna Cable 50 ohms 50 ohms

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VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR)

Forward: 10W
50 ohms Backward: 0.5W 80 ohms

9.5 W

Return Loss 10log(10/0.5) = 13dB


VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)

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VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR)

VSWR1.5 = (VSWR-1)/(VSWR+1) RetureLoss = -20lg

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BEAMWIDTH

3dB Beamwidth Peak - 3dB

10dB Beamwidth
Peak - 10dB 120 (eg) Peak Peak - 10dB

60 (eg)

Peak

Peak - 3dB

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3dBm HORIZONTAL BEAMWIDTH


Directional Antenna65/90/105/120 Omni360

Omni-directional

Directional

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3dBm VERTICAL BEAMWIDTH


Omni-directional Directional

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BEAMWIDTH

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ANTENNA STRUCTURE TYPES


Omni-directional Directional

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RADIATION PATTERN

Typical Flat-Panel Antenna

Typical Omni Antenna ZTE University

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TWO TYPES OF DIVERSITY

1. SPACE DIVERSITY 2. POLARIZATION DIVERSITY

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POLARIZATION

Vertical

Horizontal

+ 45degree slant

- 45degree slant

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SPACE DIVERSITY

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POLARIZATION DIVERSITY

V/H (Vertical/Horizontal)

Slant (+/- 45)

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TYPES OF ANTENNA

Linear Polarization,vertical

X Polarization, 45

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ANTENNA DOWN TILT

Mechanical down tilt


Fixed electronic down tilt Adjustable electronic down tilt

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MECHANICAL DOWN TILT

It is achieved by physically tilting the antenna out of the perpendicular by using down tilt kit
PROS: Cost efficient and flexible CON: Has no effect on the side-lobe characteristics of the antenna

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ELECTRICAL DOWN TILT


Input Signal

Electrical downtilt can be fixed or switchable Fixed is tuned by the manufacturer Switchable allows adjustment in a certain lever on the rear of the antenna
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ELECTRICAL DOWN TILT

Non down tilt

Electronic downtilt

Mechanical downtilt

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ELECTRICAL DOWN TILT

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ELECTRICAL DOWN TILT

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ANTENNA TILT DEVELOPMENT

Broad band Multifunctional High Integrity

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ANTENNA TILT DEVELOPMENT

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FRONT-TO-BACK RATIO
Ratio of maximum mainlobe to maximum sidelobe

Back power

Front power

F/B = 10 log(FP/BP)

typically 25dB

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UPPER SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION AND NULL FILL

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UPPER SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION AND NULL FILL

Gain reduction as a function of (vertical angle)


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INTERMODULATION (IM)
It occurs when two signals of a different frequency mix in a nonlinear device It can be a problem at any site that has two or more transmitters It can be caused by a transmitter of the same system or by a transmitter in another site that is co-sited or has a site in the neighborhood

IMD@243dBm f1, f2, 2f1-f2, 2f2-f1

913 MHz

936 MHz

959 MHz

982 MHz

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PERMITTED POWER

Continuous :25-1500 watts

Peak value:n2p

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ISOLATION

10log(1000mW/1mW) = 30dB

1000mW ( 1W)

1mW

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ANTENNA MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

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DIMENSIONS
LWH
Length connected with vertical bandwidth and gain Width connected with horizontal bandwidth Height connected with techniques adopted

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WEIGHT
A factor that can affect transmission and deployment

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RADOME MATERIAL
PVC, Fiberglass Anti-temperature, water-proofantiagingweather resistant

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COLOR
Good-looking Environment-protecting

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COLOR

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TEMPERATURE RANGE

OPERATING AND STORAGE


Typical range-40C +70C

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CONNECTOR TYPE

7/16DINNSMA Female/male

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MAST

Mast diameter 45-90mm

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LIGHTNING PROTECTION

Direct Ground

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ANTENNA TYPES
By frequency band: GSM900, GSM1800, GSM900/1800 By polarization: Vertical, Horizontal, 45 linear polarization, circle polarization By pattern: By down-tilt: Omni-directional, directional Non, mechanical, electronic adjustment, remote control By function: Transmission, receiving, transceiving

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MULTIPLE BAND ANTENNA


870-960MHz and 1710-1880MHz Extended band option with 806960MHz Dual slant 45 polarization 65 horizontal beamwidth Band independent Teletilt control 17dBi gain in both bands Diplexed or Non-Diplexed versions Mechanical downtilt mounting option
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FEEDER

7/8 MAIN FEEDER

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JUMPER CABLE
1/2 JUMPER CABLE

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CONNECTOR
7/16DIN-FDIN CONNECTOR
7/16DIN-MDIN & N CONNECTOR

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LIGHTNING ARRESTOR

Rf port 2

Grounding

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ACCESSORIES

Trimming Tool or Hand Tool Kit Clamp Earthing Kit Wall Glands Hoisting Stocking Universal Ground Bar

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ANTENNA SYSTEM
Antenna

1/2 Clamp

7/16 Din Connector

1/2 Jumper

Tower Top Amplifier

7/8 Cable 7/8 Cable

Grounding Machine house 1/2 Jumper EMP Grounding clip

Grounding bar
Cabinet

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ZTE University

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