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Application and networking terminology

Continuous media: real-time media the information stream is generated by the source continuously in a time-dependent way. The media can be passed directly as it is generated. Streaming - The information streams is played out directly as it is received. Audio and video Constant bit rate (CBR) Variable bit rate (VBR)

Constant Bit rate

It is used for the digitized audio signal.
It is determined by the frequency audio waveform is

sampled No of bits that are used to digitize the signal.

Variable Bit rate

Frames and pictures are generated to make video at

constant rates. But at compression the amount of information associated varies. Therefore video generated at fixed time intervals but resulting bit rate is variable.

Block mode media

Single block of information created in time

independent way. Example-block of text representing emails, Two dimensional matrix of image representing images. When it is requested the block of information is transferred and stored there. And subsequently output displayed at time determined by the application program.

This mode is known as downloading.
The bit rate should be kept constant The delay between the request being made and the

contents of the block being output as a destination should be of acceptable time interval. This is called round trip delay.

Communication Modes
Simplex-in one direction
Half duplex-both directions alternatively. Full duplex-both directions simultaneously. Broadcast-single source transfer to all other nodes

within the network- Television , Radio Multicast-single source but information is transfer to specific number of nodes In case of half duplex and full duplex-we have symmetric and asymmetric.

Network Types
Circuit mode-synchronous communication channel

and continuous mode at constant rates Packet mode-asynchronous communication channel and block mode at variable rates

Circuit mode
Comprises of switching offices and exchanges.
Prior to sending information connection needs to be

setup. Subscriber has a unique network wide number associated with it. Local switching office connects with another LSO at the destination and start the request to call.

The bit rate that is used should be the same.
The messages associated with setting and clearing

calls are signaling messages. There can be a time delay in setting up the connection known a s connection /Call setup delay. Example is PSTN and ISDN.

Packet Mode
Connection Oriented
Connection Less

Connection Oriented
Comprises an interconnected set of PSE.
Each has a unique network wide number or address. Connection is established first using source and

destination addresses prior to sending information. Each connection uses a variable portion of bandwidth of each link known as virtual connection.

The source sends a call request control packet to its

PSE along with the source and destination of terminal. Call request contains a short identifier known as virtual circuit identifier. Routing table is maintained at each PSE. When the call is accepted a call accepted message is receiver over the same link. We are using VCI in packet header not the full network wide address because VC is now in place. And a call clear message after transfer/exchanged.

Connection less
No connection.
Full source and destination address. In connection less we use router (replacing PSE).

Packet switched network

Provide best effort service
Packet can be discarded if it is not the exact packet we

want to receive. Packet may have to wait on a link where there received a sequence of packets to be forwarded on same outgoing link. Delay varies depends upon no. of packets in a queue. This is known as store and forward. Mean of this delay is mean packet transfer delay.

Multi point Conferencing

Includes video conferencing , data sharing and CSCW.
Two modes Centralized and Decentralized. Centralized used with circuit switched networks ex-

PSTN and ISDN. Centralized Conference Server is used. Connection is to be setup before sending any info. All information sent to server then server distributes to all other terminals involved.

Decentralized Mode: uses packet switching supports

multicasting communications. Output from one can be received by others involve in the conference. Used in LAN and internet and intranet. No use of conference server. Hybrid Mode: Combination of Centralized and decentralized zone. Can support audio ,video , Data and multimedia Conferencing

Uses audio bridge for audi0 conferencing(6-48

participants) MCU for multimedia and video conferencing. MCU consists two parts: multipoint Processor and multipoint controller. MC concerned with establishment of connection to each participant. MP is concerned with distribution of information For security user id and password is provided for conf.

Network QoS
Operational Parameters associated with

communication channel is known as N/W QoS. Determine suitability of channel in relation to its use for particular application.

Circuit switched network

The bit rate The mean bit error rate.

the probability of a bit being corrupted during its transmission across the channel in a defined time interval. 1-(1-P)N: prob. Of having at least one bit error. Unreliable Service The transmission delay. associated with codec delays (transmission time), plus the propagation delay (2*108m/s).

Codec delays that occur in the computer network

interfaces. Propagation delay of digital signals as the pass from source to destination.

Packet Switched network

The maximum packet size The mean packet transfer rate-Number of packets

transferred across the network per second The mean packet error rate-probability of received packet containing one or more bit errors. The mean packet transfer delay-summation of mean store and forward delay that packet experiences The worst-case jitter-delay variation in the delay. The transmission delay-delay in transmission

Application QoS
Application using image , the parameters may include a

minimum image resolution and size. Applications using video-The digitization and refresh rate The application QoS parameters that relate to the network include:
The required bit rate or mean packet transfer rate The maximum startup delay The maximum end-to-end delay The maximum delay variation/jitter The maximum round-trip delay.

Application QoS(Continued..)
Startup delay-Amount of time elapses between an

application making a request to start session and confirmation being received To overcome the effect of jitter a technique known as buffering is used. Packetization delay- delay converting bit to packets Service classes-a specific set of QoS parameters . Each service class is a specific set of QoS parameters and a network can either meet this set of parameters or not. The packets relating to each class are given a different priority.