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Divided into three regions Figure 7.1

split repeatedly flow rate decreases different flows at different parts of the respiratory system This is important for the deposition of particles

aerodynamic characteristics gases depends on their solubility

particles depends on their sizes

Note that they all affect flow rate

Impaction occurs mostly in the case of larger particles that are very close to airway walls greatest in the bronchial region

in the smaller airways of the bronchioles and alveoli

deposition of particles with large aerodynamic diameters grow

when a particle contacts an airway surface due to its physical size do not deviate from their air streamlines

most likely to occur in small airways


most significant for fibers

primary mechanism of deposition for particles less than 0.5 microns

net transport of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration due to Brownian motion

mostly at the pulmonary(alveolar) region

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solubilities

Note: for both gases and particles the ones that are held in the upper parts of the respiratory system (at the pulmonary region or even at the tribronchial parts) is not bad. The ones that are dangerous are the ones that reaches to pulmonary region 13

Mostly for gases

When you inhale pollutants show discomfort by sneezing, coughing etc. This happens because such irritant gasses stimulate neurotransmitters. The gases that enter to the body either are; removed by biochemical processes, or diffuses into the circulatory system.

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IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMANS

Young children

Elderly

preexisting diseases

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Table 7.1

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Advantages Conditions can be controlled carefully

Results can be quantified.


Disadvantages: Exposures are not under natural conditions Exposures should be kept low Can be performed on a limited number of people.

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Advantages: Subjects are exposed to pollutants in their natural environment. Disadvantages:

Difficulty in quantifying the results.


You must compare two populations differing only in their exposure to air pollution. It is not easy to find two groups of people with identical living habits. E.g., NIH performs such studies. In one of their studies they used 100,000 people to compare.
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Advantages

Disadvantages

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Table 7.2

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Air pollutants are generally regulated because they are harmful. You can not state wether a substance harmful or not unless you know how much is taken. In order to comment on the harm of a pollutant, the DOSE taken should be known. DOSE = conc of pollutant in air breathed x d(time)

Dose response curve can provide info on how harmful a pollutant is


Dose-response relation is given for individual pollutants (not for general air pollution) Synergic effects: Combine effect of two seperate pollutnts. Generally combined effect is higher than the sum of individual erffects
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no-treshold Treshold

treshold limit
values

Response (such as pollution demage to public)

Dose (conc of pollutant to which the public is exposed)

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26 Figure 7.1. Anatomy of the human respiratory system

1.0 0.9

0.8
0.7

Deposition fraction

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.01 0.1 1.0 10 100
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Mass median diameter (um)

Table 7.1. Three disciplinary for obtaining health information

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Table 7.2. Specific air pollutants and associated health effects

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