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BY

ARNAB PAUL
Use Of Water In Industry
COOLING WATER
BOILER WATER
PROCESS WATER
SERVICE WATER Fire-fighting, Cleaning
Impurities Found In Water
3 Categories

DISSOLVED SOLIDS (Minerals)

SUSPENDED SOLIDS (Silt)

DISSOLVED GASES

Impurities Found In Water
Dissolved Solids present as Ions
Cations - Ions that carry net positive charges e.g. Calcium
(Ca
2+
), Magnesium (Mg
2+
), Sodium (Na
+
), Iron (Fe
2+
),
Aluminium (Al
3+
)
Anions - Ions that carry net negative charges e.g.
Bicarbonates (HCO
3
-
), Carbonates (CO
3
2-
), Sulfate (SO
4
2-
),
Chlorides (Cl
-
), Oxides (O
2-
), Hydroxides (OH
-
)
Dissolved Solids Commonly Found in Water
Calcium


Magnesium


Sodium



Silica

Iron


Bicarbonate
Sulfate

Bicarbonate
Sulfate

Bicarbonate
Sulfate
Chloride

Oxide

Bicarbonate
Hydroxide
Sulfate

Ca(HCO
3
)
2
CaSO
4


Mg(HCO
3
)
2
MgSO
4


NaHCO
3
Na
2
SO
4

NaCl


SiO
2


Fe(HCO
3
)
2
Fe(OH)
3

FeSO
4
Chemical Name Anion Cation
Factors Affecting Solubility
Temperature - Most salts increases except for Ca and Mg
Salts with increasing temperature
Alkalinity - Most salt solubilities increases with decreasing
alkalinity with the exception of Silica
pH - most salts solubility increases as the pH drops
Oxidation state - Fe and Mn salt solubilities increases with
decreasing oxidation state
Impurities Found In Water
Turbidity - suspended solids
Silt, organic matters, precipitated salts
Color - suspended solids and dissolved solids
Dissolved gases e.g. CO2, O2, NH3, H2S
Organics - humus, vegetation, micro-organisms
Surface vs. Ground Water Characteristics
Suspended Solids

Dissolved Solids

Dissolved Gases

Microbiological

Organics

Variability in Quality
Low-High

Low-Medium

High

Low-Medium

Medium-High

High
Low

Medium-High

Low-Medium

Low

Low

Low-Medium
Surface Water
Ground Water
Impurity
Typical Water Analysis
pH
Conductivity S/cm
Alkalinity P as CaCO
3
, ppm

Alkalinity M as CaCO
3
, ppm

Sulfate as SO4, ppm
Chloride as Cl, ppm
Hardness, Total, as CaCO3, ppm
Calcium Hardness, as CaCO3, ppm
Magnesium Hardness, as CaCO3 ppm
Copper, Total as Cu, ppm
Iron, Total as Fe, ppm
Sodium, as Na, ppm
Phosphate, Total, as PO4, ppm
Silica (reactive), as SiO2, ppm
Turbidity, NTU
TSS, ppm
Color, Hazen
TOC, as C, ppm





Value Parameter
7.3
150
0
20
15
10
20
15
5
0.05
1.5
12
<0.05
4
50
20
3
1
How Do We Quantify

What Is In Water ?
ppm As A Measure of
Concentration
Concentration, ppm, ppb, ppt

units of solute per unit of solvent

ppm (parts per million)
parts of solute per million parts of solvent

mg/L (milligrams per liter)
0.001 grams/1000 grams (for water)
= 1 gram solute/1,000,000 grams solvent
= 1 ppm

10,000 ppm = 1 % by weight


Properties of Water
pH
pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration
pH = log(1/H
+
)
high pH = low H
+
concentration
low pH = high H
+
concentration

Properties of Water
Hardness
Hardness is a measure of Ca & Mg ion content in water
Unit: ppm as CaCO3
Total Hardness = Ca Hardness + Mg Hardness

Temporary Hardness: Due to bicarbonate,
carbonate & hydroxide salts of Ca & Mg
Permanent Hardness: Due to chlorides, sulfate
salts of Ca & Mg
(ppm as CaCO3) (ppm as CaCO3) (ppm as CaCO3)
Properties of Water
Conductivity
The ability of water to pass electric current or the amount of
electricity the ions in the water can carry
Expressed as S/cm or mmhos
Dependent on the movement (thus concentration) of ions in
solution
Often correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
Typically use 0.50 for high TDS (>1500 micromhos) and 0.65 for
low TDS
Alkalinities
M-Alkalinity

P-Alkalinity

OH-Alkalinity ( Caustic Alkalinity)

Alkalinities

M-Alkalinity = OH
-
+ (CO
3
)
2-
+ HCO
3
-

Titration to pH = 4.3


P-Alkalinity = OH
-
+ 1/2 (CO
3
)
2-

Titration to pH = 8.2


OH-Alkalinity = OH
-
OH Alkalinity = 2 (P Alk.) M Alk

Alkalinity Unit: ppm as CaCO3


pH and Alkalinity are co-related











25
Alkalinity Relationships
OH CO
3
HCO
3

Hydroxide Carbonate Bicarbonate
P = 0 0 0 M

P = M P 0 0
2P = M 0 2P 0
2P < M 0 2P M - 2P
2P > M 2P - M 2(M - P) 0



Silica

Soluble

Amorphous
Settles Out
Visible to eye

Colloidal
Remains in suspended state



Unit: ppm as SiO2










Water Treatment
Water Treatment Components
Water Treatment Plants
e.g. Softners, DM Plants, Clarifiers, Pressure Sand
Filters, Activated Carbon Filters
Resins & Filter Media
Traps impurities

Water Treatment Chemicals ( Consumables for water
conditioning)









Water Treatment Scheme
Clarifier
A
C
F

P
S
F

Softner/
DM
Mixed
Bed
UF RO
Cooling Water
System
Boiler Water System
Raw
Water
Water Treatment Plants At A
Glance
Equipment What It Removes
Clarifier Removes TSS
Multi Grade Filter Removes TSS
Activated Carbon Filter Removes Chlorine, Organics, Odor
Softner Exchanges Calcium/ Magnesium ions
with Sodium Ions
Dealkalizer Removes Alkaline Hardness
De-mineralisation Plant Removes TDS
Reverse Osmosis Plant Removes TDS
Resin
A polymeric chemical
which removes dissolved
solids by ion exchange
method.
Externally they look like
small beads
Resin is contained in a
vessel and water to be
treated is passed through
it. Output water is
treated
Resin Types

Cation Exchanging Resin
Strong Acid Cation (SAC)
Weak Acid Cation (WAC)
E.g. Na form resin removes Ca & Mg,
H form resin removes cations
Anion Exchanging Resin
Strong Base Anion (SBA)
Weak Base Anion (WBA)
OH form resin removes anions
Ion Exchange Operation Cycle
Service Production of Soft Water
Regeneration Restoration of resin capacity when it is
exhausted after service
Backwash Removal of Suspended Particle from Resin Bed
Regenaration Regerant (e.g. NaCl, HCl, NaOH ) is applied
to the resin bed for replacing Ca/ Mg in resin with Na/H/OH
Rinsing Application of water to the resin bed to displace the
regenerant (brine) from the resin bed and make it ready for
service

Service
Backwash
Regenaration
Rinsing
Operation Cycle
Softner
Softner is a water treatment plant containing Na based
resin which produces Soft Water by exchanging Ca and
Mg in the water with Na in the resin.
The resin which is exhausted in this process is
regenerated to Na form using Brine (NaCl).
The output water has Total Hardness < 5 ppm as CaCO3
Softening Process - Reactions
Ca
Mg
Na - R
+
+
HCO3
SO4
Cl
NO3
-R
Ca
Mg
Na
HCO3
SO4
Cl
NO3
Na Cl
Ca
Mg
-R
+
Na - R
Ca
Mg
Cl +
Softening
Regeneration
Softner Scheme
Ca
Mg
2 Na
Ca
Mg
2 Na
SiO
2
SO
4
2 Cl
2 NO
3
2 HCO
3
NaHCO3
Na2CO3
Na2SO4
NaCl
NaNO3
SiO2
CaCl2
MgCl2
NaCl
NaCl
To process
Influent
Regenerant
Regenerant
Waste
Softner
(Sodium
Exchange
Resin)
Demineralising Plant (DM Plant)
DM Plant is an assembly of Cation Exchanger & Anion
Exchanger which produces de-mineralised water by
exchanging cations and anions in the water with H
+
&
OH
-
ions respectively in the resins
The output water has Conductivity < 20 microsiemen/cm
A Degasser (optional) may be put between cation
exchanger & anion exchanger to remove CO2.
MGF/ACF
C.E. D.G. A.E.
M.B.
D.M. Plant
Cation Exchanger - Reactions
Ca
Mg
Na
H - R
+
+
HCO3
SO4
Cl
NO3
-R
Ca
Mg
Na
H
HCO3
SO4
Cl
NO3
H Cl
Ca
Mg
Na
-R
+
H - R
Ca
Mg
Na
Cl +
Cation Exchange
Regeneration
Cation Exchange Scheme
Ca
Mg
2 Na
Ca
Mg
2 Na
SiO
2
SO
4
2 Cl
2 NO
3
2 HCO
3
H2CO3
H2SO4
HCl
HNO3
H2SiO3
CaCl2
MgCl2
NaCl
HCl or
H2SO4
To process
Influent
Regenerant
Regenerant
Waste
Cation
Exchanger
Or CaSO4
MgSO4
Na2SO4
Anion Exchanger - Reactions
OH - R +
+
H2CO3
H2SO4
HCl
HNO3
H2SiO3
-R
CO3
SO4
Cl
NO3
SiO3
H2O
NaOH -R
+
OH - R
Na2CO3
Na2SO4
NaCl
NaNO3
Na2SiO3

+
Anion Exchange
Regeneration
CO3
SO4
Cl
NO3
SiO3
Anion Exchange Scheme
H2O
Na2SO4
Na2CO3
NaCl
NaNO3
Na2SiO3
NaOH
To process
Influent
Regenerant
Regenerant
Waste
Anion
Exchanger
H2CO3
H2SO4
HCl
HNO3
H2SiO3
Mixed Bed
A Mixed Bed Exchanger polishes water coming out of
DM plant to a very high purity. Any trace leakage,
mainly Silica, is removed by this exchanger
It is a single vessel with both cation & anion resins
mixed together.
Output water Conductivity < 1 microsiemens/cm &
Silica < 0.05 ppm
Cation & anion resins separated by backwash and
regenerated by HCl & NaOH respectively
Reverse Osmosis
Reverse Osmosis is a process to remove TDS
In this process, water flows through a semi-permeable
membrane from concentrated solution to dilute
solution by application of pressure. The process is just
opposite of osmosis, and hence the name.


Water Flow
Membrane
Pure
Water
Water with
TDS
Pressure
Reverse Osmosis
The pure outlet water is called Permeate, while the
concentrated solution is called Reject
R.O. System requires Pretreatment plants like filter eto
remove TSS from input water which can foul the
membrane. Silt Density Index (SDI) is measured in
input water for its acceptability.
CaCO3, CaSO4 and similar salts precipitate in the
membrane. Hence R.O. antiscalants are used.
R.O. is convenient compared to DM Plant since no
hazardous regenerant like HCl, NaOH are used.

Permeate
Reject
Classification Of Water Treatment
Chemicals
Commodity Chemicals


Speciality Chemicals
Commodity Chemicals
High Volume
Low Cost

Example Function
Alum Water Clarification
Chlorine Water Disinfection
Hydrazine Boiler Water Corrosion Inhibition
HEDP Cooling Water Corrosion
Inhibitor
Speciality Chemicals
Low Volume
High Cost
Blending of Basic Chemicals and catalysts to give
Tailor made products for different water chemistry
Synergistic efficiency
Faster chemical reaction
Total Treatment Package, not single product
Water quality monitoring and consultative services are
part of the package

Areas Of Application
Raw Water Treatment
Cooling Water Treatment
Boiler Water Treatment
Effluent Water Treatment
Potable Water Treatment
Resin Cleaners
RO Membrane Cleaners
Special Applications Like Gas Scrubbing Aid
Raw Water Treatment Chemicals
Raw Water Treatment
Basic Objective is Clarification Removal of Suspended
Solids
The process is done in an equipment called clarifier
Formation of heavier particles by addition of Treatment
Chemicals Coagulants & Flocculants
Heavy particles settle down by gravity and called Sludge
which is removed from the clarifier
Raw Water Treatment
Raw Water Treatment
Two important chemical Process
Coagulation
Flocculation

Scheme :
Raw Water
Coagulant
Coagulation Flocculation
Flocculant
Sludge
Settlement
Clarified
Water
Fast Mixing Zone Slow Mixing Zone
Settling Zone
Coagulation
Coagulation is the process by which charges of
suspended particles are neutralized and they come
close to each other by addition of Coagulants
Mechanism of Coagulation


1.
2.
Before Coagulant
Addition
After Coagulant
Addition
Coagulants
Inorganic Salts
E.g. Alum ( Aluminum Sulfate), Poly Aluminum Chloride
(PAC), Ferrous Sulfate
Dosage depends on TSS load in water. Usually 25 75
ppm
pH correction required sometimes
Caustic/ Soda Ash
Sulfuric Acid
Chlorination done to remove microbiological problems

Flocculation
Flocculation is the process of massing coagulated
particles to form large flocs by addition of polymers
called Flocculants

Mechanism of Flocculation


Flocculants
High Molecular Weight Polymers Proprietary
Chemicals
Anionic, Cationic or Non-ionic in nature
Type of flocculant and dosage depend on water quality,
particularly TSS
Generally dosage in the range 0.1 1 ppm

Clarifier Carryover
Clarifier upset can result in floc carrying over in the
clarified water
Clarified water may also contain aluminium/ iron ions
due to coagulants which may result in deposits
downstream
Usually filter is used downstream of Clarifier to
remove traces of suspended solids due to carryover.
Jar Testing
Jar Testing is the laboratory method to determine
coagulant and flocculant dosages and type of
flocculant suited best for that water.
Specified volume of Raw Water is taken in jar/ beaker
and different dosages and types of coagulants and
flocculants are added to achieve the best settling rate.


Cooling Water Treatment
The purpose of cooling
systems is to transfer heat
from one substance to
another
The substance that gives up
its heat is cooled
The substance that receives
the heat is the coolant
THE COOLING PROCESS
Simple Heat Transfer
Hot Process In
Hot Cooling
Water Out
Cooled Process Out
Cold Cooling
Water In
Heat Exchangers are used for
industrial process cooling
Types Of Cooling Water Systems
Basic Types of Cooling
Water Systems
There are three basic types of cooling water systems
commonly used in industry...
1. Once Through
2. Closed Recirculating
3. Open Recirculating
ONCE THROUGH
COOLING WATER
SYSTEMS
Once Through Systems
Intake
Pump
Discharge
EXAMPLES
Potable Water Systems
Process Water
General Service
CHARACTERISTICS
Avg. Temp. Change: 8-10F [4.4-5.6C]
No recirculation; Water discharged to original
source
Amount of Water Used: Large

Heat Exchanger
OPEN RECIRCULATING
WATER SYSTEMS
Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems are open to the atmosphere
at the Cooling Tower. As the water flows over the
Tower, heat picked up by the proecss is released by
Evaporation. The Cooling Water then returns to the
Heat Exchanger to pick up more heat
Open Recirculating System
Makeup
Water
Pump
Blowdown
EXAMPLES
Spray Ponds
Cooling Towers
Evaporative Condensers
CHARACTERISTICS
Avg. Temp. Change: 20-30F [11.1-16.7C]
Amount of Water Used: Moderate
Heat Exchanger
Cooling Tower
Open Recirculating Systems
Evaporation
Process by which the hot cooling water releases its
heat to the atmosphere so that it can return cool water
back to the heat exchangers
Open Recirculating Systems
Three Classifications of Open Recirculating Cooling
Towers
1. Natural Draft
2. Mechanical Draft
3. Evaporative Condensers
Natural Draft Cooling Tower
Hot air rises...
Draws cool, dry, outside air
through the water, which
enhances evaporation
Moist, warm air naturally
rises up & out of the tower
Shape causes air to move
more quickly through the
lower section, where the
water is flowing
Hyperbolic Natural Draft Cooling
Tower
Mechanical Draft Towers
Use mechanically operated fans to move air through
the cooling tower

Forced Draft Towers

Induced Draft Towers
Forced Draft Towers
Push air through
tower
Use limited to smaller
systems due to high
horsepower required
Induced Draft Towers
Pull air through tower
Classified as either
counterflow or
crossflow
Classification depends
on flow of air with
respect to cooling
water
Induced Draft Counterflow Tower
Cooling Tower Components
Basin
Deck
Fan
Spray Nozzles
Drift Eliminators
Fill
Louvers
Cells

Hot Air & Vapor
Drift
Eliminators
Cross
Flow
Air
Makeup
Water
Cool
Water
Basin
Louvers
Air
Hot
Water
In
Fan
Cooling Tower Components
BASIN Reservoir underlying the Cooling Tower
to receive cold water from the tower until the
water is pumped back to the Exchanger

DECK Top of the Tower where hot water is
distributed over the tower filling

SPRAY NOZZLES - Breaks up the distributing hot
water into droplets and effect uniform spreading of
water


Fans
Distribution Deck
Spray Nozzles
Cooling Tower Components
TOWER FILL Material inside tower which increases
air-water contact by increasing water surface as water
falls through the tower.
Types of Tower Fill
Splash Fill
Wood
Plastic
Film Forming Fill
Always Plastic
Corrugated Sheet
Very susceptible to fouling



Wooden Splash Fill
Plastic Splash Fill
Film Forming Fill
Fouled Film Forming Fill

Cooling Tower Components
LOUVERS Sloping boards installed horizontally
in a tower wall through which air enters the tower.
It also prevents water from spraying outside the
tower.
DRIFT ELIMINATOR Prevents the water
entrained in the air to leave the tower
CELLS Sub-divisions inside the tower. Each cell
has its own fan system to provide flexibility of
cooling system operation
SIDE STREAM FILTER- A filter through part of the


Cooling Tower Components
SIDE STREAM FILTER- A filter through a
percentage of the Cooling Water flows for removal
of suspended solids. This is an optional
attachment to the cooling water system and is not
found in all systems.


Cooling Tower Terms & Definations
Dry Bulb Temparature The ambient air temperature
Wet Bulb Temperature The coldest temperature to
which water can be cooled by the air
Approach Temperature The difference between the
temp. of cold water leaving the tower and the ambient
wet bulb temperature
Cooling Range or Delta T (D T) The temperature
difference between the hot water entering the tower
and the cold water leaving the tower.
Cooling Tower Terms & Definitions
Hold Up The total quantity of water in the system
including basin and pipelines. Also called System
Volume. Usually expressed in m
3

Recirculation Rate The rate at which cooling water
flows in the system. Usually expressed in m
3
/Hr
Evaporation Rate The rate at which water is being
evaporated to cool the circulating water. It is around
0.18% of recirculation rate per
o
C of cooling range.
Drift Water loss from the tower as liquid droplets
entrained in exhaust air. Usually 0.1 to 0.2% of
recirculation rate
CLOSED RECIRCULATING
WATER SYSTEMS
Closed Recirculating Systems
A Closed Recirculating System ( Closed Loop) removes
heat from a process by using a fixed volume of Cooling
Water that is not open to the atmosphere. No water is
evaporated.
Closed Recirculating Systems
Heating or Cooling
Equipment
Pump
Cold
EXAMPLES
Diesel Engine Jackets
Automobile Radiators
Chilled Water Systems
Continuous Caster Moulds


CHARACTERISTICS
Avg. Temp. Change: 10-18F [5.6-10C]
Amount of Water Used: Low
High quality water used; Little or no change
in water quality
Make-Up: Low; Mainly in case of leakage
Other Coolants Used: MEG, NaCl etc.
Heat Exchanger
Hot
Process
Exchanger
Pump
Makeup
TYPICAL
SYSTEM
Closed Recirculating Systems
Three Basic Parts of a
Closed Loop...
Pump
Primary Heat
Exchanger
Secondary Heat
Exchanger

Secondary
Exchanger
F
r
o
m

C
o
o
l
i
n
g

T
o
w
e
r

T
o

C
o
o
l
i
n
g

T
o
w
e
r

Heat Exchanger At A Glance
Heat Exchanger is a device for transferring thermal
energy from one medium to another, for example,
from one liquid to another.
Common varieties of Heat Exchanger
Shell & Tube Exchanger


Plate & Frame Heat Exchanger


Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
One medium passes through bundle of tubes while the
other passes around this bundle in a shell
Major Components
Shell
Tube & Bundle
Tube Sheet
Baffle
Can be single pass or multi-pass
Plate Type Heat Exchanger
It is an assembly of several plates which are aligned
together parallely.
The fluid flow for each media occur in the fine space
between alternate plates
Plates are corrugated to give maximum turbulence and
better heat transfer

Heat Exchanger Plate
Media Flow in PHE
Advantage Disadvantage
Very high heat transfer co-efficient Scaling & fouling are
troublesome
Low floor space requirement
Ease of inspection due to ease of assembly
& disassemble
Fundamentals Of Cooling Water
Concentration of Dissolved Solids
Only pure water can evaporate
No dissolved solids leave the liquid
water
If there are no other water losses
from the system, the evaporation
process causes an increase in the
concentration of dissolved solids in
the recirculating cooling water.
6
1
3
2
5
4
Constant
Evaporation
Concentration of Dissolved Solids
Mineral scale will form if the dissolved solids
concentration in the cooling water becomes too high
Supersaturation
Impact of Blowdown on
Concentration Ratio
Blowdown:
Deliberate discharge of
water from the system
to prevent the
impurities from getting
too high. It maintains
them within a tolerable
limit.

6
1
3
2
5
4
Constant Evaporation
6
3
2
5
4
Constant Evaporation
1
With
Zero
Blowdown
With
Continuous
Blowdown
Maintaining
4 Cycles
Makeup Water & Water Balance
Evaporation
Makeup
Blowdown
Makeup =
Evaporation +
Blowdown + Drift
Loss
Drift Loss





Expressed in m
3
/Hr
Cycles of Concentration (CoC)
C = Conc. of an impurity (X ion)in CW
Conc. of same impurity (X ion) in M/U
= Make up Rate
Blow Down
X ion can be Cl, Ca H, Mg H, TH, Silica
Cl not useful when Cl low or chlorination used
Mg H is reliable but prone to analytical error
Ca H may be misleading as precipitation may occur
Silica useful but gives analytical error in presence of
phosphate
TH reliable when Ca Carbonate not precipitating
Understanding CoC

The amounts of Ca Hardness in Make-Up water &
Recirculating Water are found to be 20 ppm & 180 ppm
respectively.
Q1. What is the CoC in the system?
Q2. If Make-up Rate is 300 m
3
/Hr, what is the Blow-
down Rate?
Effect of COC on Blow Down
& Make Up
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
1
.
2
1
.
6 2
2
.
4
2
.
8
3
.
2
3
.
6 4
4
.
4
4
.
8
5
.
2
5
.
6 6
6
.
4
6
.
8
Evaporation Blow Down Make Up
Cooling Water Formulae
M = E + B
E = (R.R X DT X 1.8) / 1000
B = E / (CoC 1)
Where,
M = Make-Up Water Rate (m
3
/Hr.)
B = Blow Down + Drift Loss (m
3
/Hr.)
E = Evaporation Rate (m
3
/Hr.)
R.R = Recirculation Rate (m
3
/Hr.)
DT = Cooling Range (
o
C)
CoC = Cycles of Concentration

Common Cooling Water Problems
CORROSION
MICROBIO
Cooling System Problems
Left unchecked these
problems cause
Loss of heat transfer
Reduced equipment life
Equipment failures
Lost production
Lost profits
Increased maintenance
costs
Plant shutdown

INTER DEPENDENCE OF PROBLEMS
SCALING
CaCO3
CaSO4
Silicates
CORROSION
Pitting
Uniform Corrosion
FOULING
Sedimentation
Biofouling

MICRO-ORGANISM
Algae
Bacteria
Fungus
Treatment Derived
Fouling Corrosion Scaling
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

P
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

Under
Deposit
Corrosion
Biofouling -
Slimes &
Algae
bacteria
Under
Deposit
Corr.
Increase
Settling
Rate
Direct Attack
SRB/IB/Nitrifying Bact.
Act as Binder
(as Nuciei)
Corrosion Inhibitor
Overdosing
Underdosing
Overdosing
MINERAL SCALE
Mineral Scale
Cooling Water contains many different minerals --
normally these minerals are dissolved in the water
Under certain conditions minerals can come out of
solution and form into hard, dense crystals called
SCALE
Scaled Heat Exchanger Tubes
Mineral Scale
Common Scales
Calcium Carbonate
Magnesium Silicate
Calcium Phosphate
Zinc Phosphate
Calcium Sulfate
Iron Oxide
Iron Phosphate
Silica
CaPO4
CaCO3
POOR HEAT TRANSFER
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0.01
Iron + Silica
High Iron Content
Ca Scale
0.02 0.03 0.04
Scale Thickness - Inches
%

A
d
d
e
d

P
o
w
e
r

C
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

80
0.05 0.06
Mineral Scale
The Following Factors Affect
Scale Formation...
^Mineral Concentration
^Water Temperature
^Water pH
^Suspended Solids
-Water Flow Velocity
Factors Affecting Scale Formation
.
Solubility & Concentration
Under certain conditions, each salt exhibits a definite
solubility limit. Once the same is exceeded, the solution
is supersaturated and precipitation starts
pH / Alkalinity
Solubility of most of the salts decreases with increase in
pH and alkalinity.
However, some salts like silicates are more soluble in
alkaline range

Factors Affecting Scale Formation
.
Temperature
All common scalants show inverse solubility





Low High
High
Temperature
Solubility of
Ca & Mg Salts
Factors Affecting Scale Formation
.
Flow rate
Scaling potential increases under low flow condition
due to the adequate contact time available for the
crystal growth
Suspended Solids
Suspended solids encourage scale formation by
providing neucleation site for scale crystal growth
Flow rate decreases due to deposition of suspended
solids and increases scaling potential

Scales
Calcium Carbonate
Most common scale

Ca( HCO
3
)2 CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
0

Degree of Scaling depends on Ca Hardness, Alkalinity,
pH, TDS & Temperature

Mostly white or light brown in color
Heat
Common Scales
Calcium Phosphate
Less soluble at high temperature & pH
High levels of Ca & Phosphate results in this scale
Common source of Phosphate is Phosphate based
treatment program
In phosphate based treatment programs, film forming
fills in Cooling Towers are often fouled by this scale
Common Scales
Zinc Based
Precipitates with hydroxides & phosphates
Source Treatment program
Normally results at high pH
Usually soft
Formed mostly in low flowing areas
Preventing Mineral Scale
Limit concentration of scale forming minerals:
Blowdown, clarify/filter MU
Feed acid to reduce pH & alkalinity: Reduces scaling --
increases corrosion
Mechanical design changes: Increase HX water
velocity, backflush, air rumble
Apply chemical scale inhibitors
Important Cooling Water Indices
RI ( Ryzner Index) / LSI (Langelier Index)
Predicts whether Ca Carbonate will precipitate and thus
scaling or corrosive tendency of water
LSI = pH
a
pH
s
RSI = 2 pH
s
pH
a
Where
pH
a
= Actual CW pH
pH
s
= Saturation pH
pHs depends on TDS, Ca H, M Alk & Temp of CW


Calculation of Ryzner Index
Find out Water pH
Find out pHs from the formula
pHS = 9.3 + N
S
+ N
T
( N
H
+ N
A
)
where values of N
S
, N
T
, N
H
& N
A
can be obtained from
the Calculation Table
Ryzner & Langelier Indices
LSI RSI Condition without
Treatment
3.0 3.0 Extremely Severe Scaling
2.0 4.0 Very Severe Scaling
1.0 5.0 Severe Scaling
0.5 5.5 Moderate Scaling
0.2 5.8 Slight Scaling
0.0 6.0 Stable Water
-0.5 7.0 Slightly Corrosive
- 1.0 8.0 Moderately Corrosive
- 2.0 9.0 Severely Corrosive
- 3.0 10.0 Extreme severe Corrosive
TDS (ppm) N
S

Ca Hardness (ppm as
CaCO3) N
H

M-Alkalinity (ppm as
CaCO3) N
A

50 - 350 0.1 10 0.6 10 1.0
400 - 1100 0.2 12 0.7 12 1.1
14 0.8 14 1.2
18 0.9 18 1.3
23 1 23 1.4
28 1.1 28 1.5
Water Temp. (
o
C) N
T
35 1.2 36 1.6
0 2.6 44 1.3 45 1.7
2.5 2.5 56 1.4 56 1.8
6.8 2.4 70 1.5 70 1.9
10 2.3 88 1.6 88 2.0
14.5 2.2 111 1.7 111 2.1
18 2.1 139 1.8 140 2.2
22 2 175 1.9 177 2.3
28 1.9 230 2 230 2.4
32 1.8 280 2.1 280 2.5
38 1.7 350 2.2 360 2.6
44 1.6 440 2.3 450 2.7
51 1.5 560 2.4 560 2.8
57 1.4 700 2.5 700 2.9
64 1.3 870 2.6 880 3.0
72 1.2 1050 2.7 Back
Case Study on Effect of Pre-Treatment on
CW Quality
Parameter With Raw Water With Soft Water With RO
Permeate
pH 7.8 8.3 7.8 8.3 6.0 7.0
Ca Hardness 200 300 0 - 30 0 - 30
Alkalinity 30 - 100 30 - 100 10 20
TDS 300 - 2000 300 - 2000 25 100
Temp (
0
C) 45 45 45
RI 6.65
Almost Balanced
9.1
Corrosive
11.6
Extremely
corrosive
Scale Inhibitor
Three Classifications Of Scale
Inhibiting Chemicals Are

Crystal Modifiers

Dispersants
Organophosphonates & phosphates distort the crystal
structure of scale so that it does not become tightly adherent
Crystal Modifiers
Minerals do not align in
a tight matrix
Dispersants
Compounds such as polyacrylates are large molecules
that impart a charge causing scale forming minerals to
repel each other
-
Particle
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
Particle
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
CORROSION
Corrosion
Corrosion is a mechanism by which metals are reverted
back to their natural oxidized state
Battery Analogy
Anode
Cathode
Electrical Circuit
Metal lost at anode
Corrosion
e
-
Electrolyte
A
n
o
d
e

C
a
t
h
o
d
e

Simplified Corrosion Cell
Fe
2+

CATHODE
ANODE
O
2

OH
-

e
-
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
Water with
Dissolved
Minerals
Base Metal
O
2

e
-
e
-
e
-
Four Step Corrosion Model
Step 1: At the anode, pure iron begins to break down in
contact with the cooling water. This step leaves behind
electrons.
Step 2: Electrons travel through the metal to the cathode.
Step 3: At the cathode, a chemical reaction occurs between
the electrons and oxygen carried by the cooling water. This
reaction forms hydroxide.
Step 4: Dissolved minerals in the cooling water complete
the electrochemical circuit back to the anode.
Factors Influencing Corrosion
pH
Temperature
Dissolved Solids
System Deposits
Water Velocity
Microbiological Growth

100
10
0
5 6 7 8 9 10
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

U
n
i
t
s

pH
Corrosion Vs. pH
Corrosion Vs. Temperature
Corrosion Rate
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

In general, for every 18F in
water temperature, chemical
reaction rates double.
Other Causes of Corrosion
^Dissolved Solids
Complete circuit from cathode to anode
^System Deposits
Anodic pitting sites develop under deposits
Water Velocity
Too low = deposits
Too high = Erosion
^Microbiological Growth
Deposits; Produce corrosive by-products
Types of Corrosion

1. General Corrosion
2. Localized Pitting Corrosion
3. Galvanic Corrosion
4. Stress Corrosion
5. Erosion Corrosion
6. Selective Leaching
7. Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)

Base Metal
General Etch Uniform Attack
Water
O
r
i
g
i
n
a
l

T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

General Corrosion
Preferred situation
Take a small amount of
metal evenly
throughout the system
Anode very large
Base Metal
Localized Pitting Attack
Water
O
r
i
g
i
n
a
l

T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

Pitting Corrosion
Metal removed at
same rate but from a
much smaller area
Anode very small
Often occurs under
deposits or weak
points
Leads to rapid metal
failure

Stress Corrosion
Known as Stress
Corrosion Cracking,
this type of metal
failure is common in
Stainless Steel
metallurgy in presence
of Chloride Ion.
Effects of Corrosion
Destroys cooling system metal
Corrosion product deposits in heat exchangers
Heat transfer efficiency is reduced by deposits
Leaks in equipment develop
Process side and water side contamination occurs
Water usage increases
Maintenance and cleaning frequency increases
Equipment must be repaired and/or repaired
Unscheduled shutdown of plant
REDUCED LIFE OF HEAT
EXCHANGERS








TYPICAL CORROSION RATES
WITHOUT
TREATMENT
WITH
TREATMENT
20 MPY * 3 MPY *
1 MPY =
0.001
INCH PER
YEAR
WITH TREATMENT: SAVINGS IN DEPRECIATION COST BY 85
%
* Above figures are indicative only. Actual values change from site to site

REDUCED LIFE OF HEAT
EXCHANGERS
USING SOFT OR DEMINERALISED WATER IS
NOT A SOLUTION FOR COOLING WATER
PROBLEMS. WHILE SCALING PROBLEMS ARE
AVOIDED BY THIS, WATER BECOMES
PROGRESSIVELY CORROSIVE BY USE OF SOFT
AND DM WATER LEADING TO IRON PICK-UP
& THESE IRON DEPOSITS ARE VERY POOR
CONDUCTOR OF HEAT

Methods To Control Corrosion
Use corrosion resistant alloys: $
Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale
Apply protective coatings: Integrity
Apply chemical corrosion
inhibitors
Chemical Corrosion Inhibitors
Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors

Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors

General Corrosion Inhibitors
Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Stop corrosion cell by blocking the anodic site


Severe localized pitting attack can occur at an
unprotected anodic sites if insufficient inhibitor is
present
Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Stop corrosion cell by blocking the electrochemical
reaction at the cathode


Corrosion rate is reduced in direct proportion to the
reduction in the size of the cathodic area.

General Corrosion Inhibitors
Protect metal by filming all surface whether cathodic
or anodic
Used in copper, brass and other yellow metal corrosion
inhibition
FOULING
Fouling
Fouling is the accumulation of solid material, other that
scale, in a way that it hampers the operation of
equipment or contributes to its deterioration
Common Foulants
Suspended Solids
Silt, Sand, Mud and Iron
Dirt & Dust
Process contaminants, e.g. Oil & Grease
Corrosion Products
Microbio growth
Carryover (clarifier/lime softener)
Oil & Grease And Microbiological Slime act as binder for suspended
particles on metal surface !
Water Characteristics
Water Temperature
Water Flow Velocity
Microbio Growth
Corrosion
Process Leaks
Factors Influencing Fouling
Effects of Fouling
Foulants form deposits in hot and/or low flow
areas of cooling systems
Shell-side heat exchangers are the most vulnerable
to fouling
Deposits ideal for localized pitting corrosion
Corrosive bacteria thrive under deposits
Metal failure results
Economic Impact of Fouling
Decreased plant efficiency
Reduction in productivity
Production schedule delays
Increased downtime for maintenance
Cost of equipment repair or replacement
Reduced effectiveness of
chemical inhibitors
Fouling
Chemical Treatment
Charge Reinforcers
Wetting Agents
Charge Reinforcement Mechanism
Slightly anionic
suspended
particle
Suspended Solid
which has adsorbed
highly anionic
chemical
Highly
Anionic
Chemical
Anionic polymers increase strength of charge
already present on suspended solids
Keep particles small enough so they do not
settle out
Wetting Agents
Particle Build-up
With Wetting Agent
Surfactants
Penetrate existing
deposits
Wash away from metal
surfaces
Some Common Dispersants
Calcium Carbonate Dispersant
Calcium Phosphate Dispersant
Zinc & Zinc Phosphate Dispersant
Silt Dispersant
Silica Dispersant
Iron Dispersant
Oil Dispersant
Bio-Dispersant
MICROBIOLOGICAL
GROWTH
Microbiological Growth
Water treatment is about
managing three fouling
processes...
=Corrosion
=Scale
=Microbio
The microbial fouling
process is...
The most complex
The least understood
The hardest to measure
and monitor
Controlled using the least
desirable, most expensive,
& potentially hazardous
products
Microbiological Growth
Three Kinds Of Troublesome Microorganisms In
Cooling Water...

1. Bacteria
2. Algae
3. Fungi
Bacteria
Types of Bacteria
1. Slime Forming
2. Anaerobic Corrosive
3. Iron Depositing
4. Nitrifying
5. Denitrifying

Bacteria
Slime Formers
Iron Depositing Anaerobic
Typical Rods
Bacteria
Produce acidic waste that lowers pH and
causes corrosion
Produce large volumes of iron deposits that foul
Produce acids from ammonia that increase
corrosion & lower pH
Form sticky slime masses that foul & cause
reduced heat transfer
Biofilms
Contribute to all cooling
water problems
Underdeposit corrosion
Trap silt & debris which
foul heat exchangers and
tower fill
Provide nucleation sites
for scale formation
Biofilm Formation
C
C
C
FLOW
Thermal
Foulant Conductivity
CaCO3 1.3-1.7
CaSO4 1.3
CaPO4 1.5
MgPO4 1.3
Fe Oxide 1.7
Biofilm 0.4
P P
Common
biofilms are 4
times more
insulating
than CaCO3
scale!
Biofilms
More insulating than
most common scales =
Reduce heat transfer
efficiency
Increase dP across heat
exchangers & reduce flow
Health risks (legionella)
Algae
Require sunlight to grow
Found on tower decks & exposed areas
Form algae mats
Plug distribution holes on tower decks
Plug screens/foul equipment
Consume oxidants
Provide food for other organisms
Fungi
Use carbon in wood
fibers for food
Destroy tower lumber
by either surface or
internal rotting (deep
rot)
Loss of structural
integrity of tower
Factors Affecting Growth of
Microorganisms
Microorganism Sources: Air or Makeup water
Cooling systems provide the ideal environment for
microbiological growth
Nutrients: Ammonia, oil, organic contaminants
Temperature: 70-140F acceptable
pH: 6.0 - 9.0 ideal
Location: Light/No Light
Atmosphere: Aerobic/Anaerobic
Microbiological Growth
Chemical Treatment With Biocides

Oxidizing Biocides
Non-oxidizing Biocides
Biodispersants
Oxidizing Biocide
Majorly Halogen i.e. Chlorine/ Bromine based
compounds
They oxidize or burn-up any micro-organism which
come in their contact
Usually dosed on continuous basis based on make-up
water rate. However, slug dose based on system
volume is also done in certain cases
Non Oxidizing Biocide
Organic Compounds
They work by interfering with the metabolism of the
microbe or by destroying the cell-wall of the
microbes
They are slug dosed in the system at a frequency e.g.
once in a week.
Each non-oxidizing biocide is used alternately with
another non-oxidizing or oxidizing biocide due to
immunity developed by micro-organism
Bio-Dispersant
They remove the biological slime and expose other
biological deposits under which bacteria grow.
Once exposed, the oxidizing or non-oxidizing biocides
kill the micro-organisms. Thus, bio-dispersants
increase the efficacy of the biocides.
Bio-dispersants are usually dosed continuously.
However, in certain cases they are slug dosed before
the biocide dosage
Internal Chemical Treatment
Product Function
Scale Inhibitor Used in sub-stoichiometric level
Works by 2 modes
1. Sequestration
2. Crystal Distortion
Corrosion Inhibitor Forms corrosion protective film in
the system. Can be anodic,
cathodic or general inhibitor.
Dispersant Imparts negative charges on
surface of suspended particles
which then repel each other and
stay suspended
Internal Chemical Treatment
Product Function
Bio- Dispersant Penetrates the bio-film and pulls it out,
exposing the bacteria inside
Biocides Non-oxidising Biocides Works on micro-
organisms by
1. Altering their cell protein structure
2. Reacting at enzyme sites

Oxidising Biocides Works on micro-
organisms by destroying their cell walls
Closed Circuit Water Challenges
High water retention in the system
Any impurity entering with make-up water
or generated in the system will remain and
aggravate. No reduction through blow down
Special treatment chemicals required due to
the high retention period in the system
during which other chemicals lose their
efficacy
Closed Circuit Water Problems
Major Problems
Corrosion
Micro-biological growth
Accumulated foulants
Closed Circuit Water Problems
Corrosion
DM or Soft water, generally used, is corrosive
Micro-biological pitting corrosion

Foulants
Majorly corrosion products
Oil & grease
Suspended solids in make-up water

Closed Circuit Water Problems
Micro-biological growth
No algae, since closed system
Bacteria with make-up water grow & colonise
rapidly since high retention of water ( no
blow down)
Nitrite based corrosion inhibitors are
nutrient for nitrogen bacteria to grow
MEG based coolants are nutrient for
bacterial growth.

SITE MANAGEMENT
Base Data
Collect system details
Collect water analysis
Review proposed treatment program
Understand process & plant condition
Historical background of previous treatment &
problems encountered
System Details
Type of Cooling Tower
Hold Up Volume (m
3
)
Recirculation Rate (m
3
/Hr)
Temperature Across Cooling Tower (
0
C)
Evaporation Rate (m
3
/Hr)
Cycles of Concentration
Blow Down Rate (m
3
/Hr)
Make Up Rate (m
3
/Hr)
Material of Construction
Highest Water Temperature
Alignment of HX etc.
Water Analysis
pH
Total & Calcium Hardness
M & P Alkalinity
TDS
Chloride
Silica
Iron
Phosphate
Zinc.
Test Kit
Chemical Consumption
Continuous / Daily dosing
Kg/ Hr = {Blow down(m3/Hr) X Product Dosage (ppm)} / 1000
Mostly for Scale / Corrosion Inhibitors


Slug Dosing
Kg = {Hold Up (m3) X Product Dosage (ppm)} / 1000
Mostly for Biocides & Initial Dosing of Scale/ Corrosion Inhibitors

Chemical Addition
Where to Add
In C.T. - upstream of suction pump near the make-up
Mostly for Scale / Corrosion Inhibitors
When to Add
Scale / Corrosion Inhibitors - Continuous
Chlorine / Oxidising Biocides Cont or slug dosed as per proposed
interval
Non oxidising Biocide Slug dosed on alternate basis with other biocide
as per proposed interval

Treatment Stages Handling A
New System
1. Precleaning


2. Passivation


3. Regular Treatment
Precleaning
Physically clean the tower deck to remove algae &
slime
Flush the system with water
Remove oil & grease, mill scales and other deposits
using specific dispersants, circulate & drain
Add biocides & dispersants after refilling, circulate &
drain again

Passivation
Refill the system with fresh water, add double or
triple dosage of inhibitors & dispersants
Passivate the system for few days maintaining the
above dosage during heat load
Continue regular addition & monitor
Repassivate the system after upsets, long
shutdowns
CWT Performance Monitoring

Scaling & Fouling
Design Vs Actual Approach Temp., Terminal Temp. Difference
Deposit Monitor
Ca & Mg balance in Circulating & Make up Water
Scale & Deposit Sample Analysis
Corrosion
Corrosion Monitoring Rack
Inhibitor Residual Measurement
Micro-biological Problems
Dip Slides
Bio-fouling Monitor

PENNTREAT COOLING

WATER TREATMENT


Cooling Water Treatment
Objectives
Maintain Scale & Deposit Free Heat Exchangers and
Increase Energy Savings
Prevent Corrosion and Increase Life of Heat Exchangers
Prevent Algae & Deposit Formation In Cooling Towers for
Better Cooling Efficiency
Prevent Micro-Biological Corrosion & Bio-film Formation
Water Savings by Minimizing Blow Down Losses
Eliminate / Minimize Acid Dosing In Cooling Water


Cooling Water Treatment Package
Scale Inhibitor
Corrosion Inhibitor
Anti-Foulant / Dispersants
Biocides
Bio-Dispersants

PENNAR CHEMICALS LTD
Water Treatment Chemicals
PENNTREAT Cooling Water Treatment
Capabilities
-High pH upto 9.2
-High Ca Hardness upto 1500 ppm
-Low Ca Hardness ( < 5 ppm)
-Higher Stress Low Flow,High Cl
-
,SO4
-

-
-High Temperature
-Resistance to Cl
2
, Hydrocarbons, Organics
-NH
3
, Oil
-pH Fluctuation

PENNAR CHEMICALS LTD
Water Treatment Chemicals
PENNTREAT COOLING

WATER TREATMENT

PRODUCTS
Snapshot Few PENNTREAT
Cooling Water Treatment Products
PRODUCT ATTRIBUTE
PENNTREAT 8946 SCALE CUM CORROSION INHIBITOR EFFECTIVE
AT HIGH pH & HARDNESS
PENNTREAT 8790 CATH-ANODIC CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR
COMPLETE CORROSION PROTECTION
PENNTREAT 9575 SCALE & DEPOSIT INHIBITOR WITH HIGH
CALCIUM, pH & TSS TOLERANCE
PENNTREAT 9135 POLYMERIC DISPERSANT WITH ADVANCED
FORMULATION
PENNTREAT 9995 BIO-DISPERSANT FOR CONTROLLING BIO-FILM
PENNTREAT 6553 BROAD SPECTRUM NON- OXIDIZING BIOCIDE
PENNTREAT 6534 BROAD SPECTRUM NON - OXIDIZING BIOCIDE
ADVANTAGES OF PENNTREAT
COOLING WATER TREATMENT
Advantages of PENNTREAT
Treatment
Concentrated Products requiring lower dosages
to maintain Active Residuals in the system
MORE FROM LESS COST
High Calcium & pH Tolerance ALLOWS
OPERATION AT HIGH COC & LESS BLOW-
DOWN LOSS
Allows Higher Levels of other Impurities like
Chloride, Silica, Iron etc. LESS BLOW-DOWN
LOSS

Advantages of PENNTREAT
Treatment
Both Cathodic & Anodic Corrosion
Inhibition DOUBLE CORROSION
PROTECTION
Persistent Corrosion Protection Film ABLE
TO SUSTAIN HIGH STRESS CONDITIONS
Phosphate / Zinc Stabilization Even at
Alkaline pH ACID DOSING CAN BE
ELIMINATED


Advantages of PENNTREAT
Treatment
High Stress Polymers with robust linkages for
Thermal & Hydrolytic Stability
SUPERIOR SCALE & DEPOSIT CONTROL AT
HIGH SKIN TEMPERATURE OF HEAT
EXCHANGER
EXCELLENT FUNCTIONING OF POLYMERS
EVEN AT HIGH RETENTION PERIOD
Broad Spectrum Biocides KILLS BETTER
DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIA & ALGAE
Products Operating over flexible range of parameters
EASY FOR APPLICATION & MONITORING


Problems & Treatment Approaches
Types Of Boilers
Coil Type
Fire Tube
Water Tube

Coil Type
Typical once through boiler

Max water holding 22.5 Lts

100-600 Kg/Cm
2

Generally oil fired boiler
Fire Tube or Smoke Tube Boiler
Firetube Fire in Tube"
boilers, contain long steel
tubes through which the hot
gasses from a furnace pass
and around which the water
to be changed to steam
circulates.

Water Tube Boiler
Water tube : OR "water in tube"
boilers in which the conditions
are reversed with the water
passing through the tubes and
the furnace for the hot gasses is
made up of the water tubes.
Terminologies

Feed water: The water supplied to the boiler that is
converted into steam.
Condensate : Condensed steam returned from the
processes.
Makeup water : Fresh water in taken to the boiler
Blowdown : The process of removing sludge formed in the
boiler periodically.


Boiler System
Make-up Water
Primary
Pretreatment
Secondary
Pretreatment
Steam Header
Boiler
Feedwater
Blowdown
Condensate
Chemical
Feed
Systems
Deaerator
Boiler System
Make-up Water
Primary
Pretreatment
Secondary
Pretreatment
Steam Header
Boiler
Feedwater
Blowdown
Condensate
Chemical
Feed
Systems
Deaerator
Boiler System
Make-up Water
Primary
Pretreatment
Secondary
Pretreatment
Steam Header
Boiler
Feedwater
Blowdown
Condensate
Chemical
Feed
Systems
Deaerator
Boiler System
Make-up Water
Primary
Pretreatment
Secondary
Pretreatment
Condensate
Chemical
Feed
Systems
Deaerator
Steam Header
Boiler
Feedwater
Blowdown
Condensate System
Make-up Water
Primary
Pretreatment
Secondary
Pretreatment
Steam Header
Boiler
Feedwater
Blowdown
Chemical
Feed
Systems
Deaerator
Condensate
Calculating Cycles Of Concentration


CoC =
TDS IN BOILER WATER
TDS IN FEED WATER
=
SILICA IN BOILER WATER
SILICA IN FEED WATER
Important Formulae


% BLOW DOWN =
TDS IN BOILER WATER - TDS IN FEED WATER
TDS IN FEED WATER
FEED WATER RATE
=
STEAM GEN. RATE X
( 1
+
% BLOW DOWN
100
)
Important Formulae


CONDENSATE RETURN % =
( 1
-
FEED WATER CHLORIDE
)
MAKE UP WATER CHLORIDE
Types of Pretreatment Equipment
Primary
Clarifiers

Secondary
Demineralizer
Dealkalizers
Reverse Osmosis

Problems Associated With
Boiler Water

Scaling
Corrosion
Carryover in the steam
SCALE
Scale
Accumulation of material on boiler surfaces that
can cause overheating as well as circulation
restrictions.
Both conditions frequently result in
unscheduled Shutdowns.

Effect of Scale
CORROSION
Corrosion

Corrosion occurs in Boiler

From Oxygen in Feed Water ( Most Common )

From Acidic Conditions in Boiler

Due to Caustic Attack
Oxygen Corrosion
Under normal boiler operating conditions, a protective
film of iron oxide, called Magnetite layer, is formed on
the boiler metal surface.

However, oxygen in boiler water converts Magnetite
into Hematite. This Hematite cannot form a protective
layer and allows corrosion.

Oxygen corrosion is pitting in nature.
Oxygen Pitting
Caustic Corrosion
High concentration of caustic in boiler can dissolve the
Magnetite layer to cause Caustic Corrosion
Occur due to
Localized boiling beneath porous deposits on boiler
surface which causes salts to concentrate
Steam blanketing due to poor water flow (resulting out
of deposit formation) which causes salts to concentrate
CONDENSATE LINE
CORROSION
Condensate Line Corrosion
Causes of Corrosion
Oxygen
Comes from feed water
Under vacuum as steam condenses
Carbon Di-oxide
From break down of feed water alkalinity
Under vacuum as steam condenses
CO
2
+ H
2
O = H
2
CO
3

CARRY OVER
Carryover
Contaminant leaves the Boiler Drum & travels with the
steam.
Reasons of Carryover
Mechanical
Load variation etc.
Chemical
Foaming
High TSS, TDS, pH, Alkalinity, Organics
Vaporisation of Silica
Conc. Of Silica, pH, Boiler Pressure
Internal Chemical Treatment
Product Function
Anti Scalant Makes scales into loose
sludges, removed through
blow down
Sludge Conditioner Disperses sludges into fine
particles for removal through
blow down
Oxygen Scavengers Reacts with Oxygen and does
not allow corrosion
pH Boosters Raise boiler water pH to
avoid corrosion, better
sludge formation & avoid
silica carryover
Internal Chemical Treatment
Product Function
Condensate Treatment
Product
Prevents condensate line
corrosion
Defoamers Prevents foaming
Boiler Descaling Chemicals
Removes scales which are already formed in the system
Usually Ca & Mg scales; sometimes Silica scales
Treatment done offline, during system shutdown
Product selected based on the type of scale
Guidelines for Water Quality
in Boilers
Depends on
Configuration of Boiler
Boiler Pressure
(Water Tube / Fire Tube)
Application e.g Turbine

Depends on Boiler Pressure
Guided by Standards provided by ASME, ABMA
etc as well as Boiler Manufacturers
SITE MANAGEMENT
Base Data
Collect system details
Collect water analysis
Review proposed treatment program
Understand process & plant condition
Historical background of previous treatment &
problems encountered
System Details
No. of Boilers
Boiler Type ( Water Tube / Fire Tube)
Design Pressure (Kg/ cm
2
)
Operating Pressure (Kg/ cm
2
)
Steam Generation (TPH)
Feed Water Rate (TPH)
Feed Water Temperature (
o
C)
% Condensate Return, if any
Hours of Operation per Day
Chemical Dosing Facilities
Water Analysis Feed Water
pH
Total Hardness
TDS/ Conductivity
Chloride
Silica
Iron
Oxygen
Oil
TOC
Water Analysis Boiler Water
pH
Total Hardness
TDS/ Conductivity
M & P Alkalinity
Silica
Chloride
Iron
Product Residuals
Water Analysis Steam /
Condensate
pH
TDS/ Conductivity
Sodium
Silica ( mainly in case of turbine application)
Product Residuals, if any
Chemical Consumption
When to Add
Continuous / Daily dosing
Kg/ Hr = {Feed Water(TPH) X Product Dosage (ppm)} / 1000

Where to Add
Low Pressure Boiler
Feed Water Line / Feed Water Tank
High Pressure Boiler
Deaerator Storage tank for Oxygen Scavengers, pH Boosters,
Condensate Treatment Chemicals
Boiler Drum for Anti Scalants ( Phosphates)
PENNTREAT BOILER

WATER TREATMENT

PRODUCTS
Boiler Water Treatment Package
Anti Scalants
Catalyzed Oxygen Scavengers Both Volatile & Non-
Volatile
Sludge Conditioners
pH Boosters
Condensate Return Chemicals
De-foamers
Descaling Chemicals
All In-One Treatment Programs containing
Antiscalant, Oxygen Scavenger, pH Booster, Condensate
Return Chemicals

Advantages of PENNTREAT Boiler
Water Treatment
More from less cost
High tolerance to feed
water impurities
Allows operation at high
CoC
Highly Catalyzed
Products
High temperature
tolerance



Synergistic blends for best
result at optimum dosage
Zero TDS programs for
high pressure boilers
All-In-One Treatment
programs Easy to use


Snapshot Few PENNTREAT Boiler
Water Treatment Products
PRODUCT ATTRIBUTE
PENNTREAT 4584 ANTI SCALANT
PENNTREAT 4595 ANTISCALANT CUM SLUDGE CONDITIONER
PENNTREAT 4351 CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR LOW FEED WATER
TEMP.
PENNTREAT 4331 CATALYZED SULFITE BASED OXYGEN
SCAVENGER
PENNTREAT 4363 ZERO TDS CAT. HYDRAZINE BASED OXY. SCV.
PENNTREAT 4652 ALL-IN-ONE TREATMENT WITH DISP., OXY.
SCAV., CONDENSATE TREATMENT
PENNTREAT 4350 TANIN BASED ANTISCALING, CORROSION
INHIBITOR
WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS
MARKET
WTC Market Segmentation
Heavy Industry



Medium Industry



Light Industry
Steel ( Integrated
Steel Plants)
Other Metals
(Copper/ Alumin.)
Fertilisers
Refinery &
Petrochemicals
Power Plants ( >
100 MW)
Power Plant
(< 100 MW)
Mini Steel
Plant
Chemical Textile
Paper Sugar Automobile
& Tyre
Cement
DG Sets Pharma Food
Hotel Gen. Engineering
Competition
Segment Major Competitors
Heavy Nalco Chemicals
Drew Chembond
Thermax
GE Water ( GEI (W&PT) )
Vasu
Ion Exchange
Competition
Segment Major Competitors
Medium & Light Thermax
Nalco
Ion Exchange
Chembond
Albatross
De-ionisers
Vasu Chemicals
Elof Hansen
Neelam Chemicals
Wex Technologies
EAU Chemicals
Indochem
Anco

THANK YOU