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Welcome

To Presentation On Computer Hardware


By R.Venkata Ramana Manager(IT)

Learning Objectives
When you finish this Session, you will Learn:

Bits and Bytes


Computer, Types of Computers Basics of Hardware System specifications for procurement

Memory
Unit of Memory is Byte which is combination of 8 bits

1024 1024 1024 1024

Bytes------------1 Kilo Byte Kilo Bytes-------1 Mega Byte Mega Bytes-----1 Giga Byte Giga Bytes------1 Terra Byte

Types of Computers
Digital : A digital computer uses Digital Technology. (On

and Off). Most computers used for information


processing are of this type.

Analog: An Analog computer is designed to process


continues physical quantities. Which can use infinite number of values not just simple on and off.

Ex: Computers to monitor Temperature, Voltage

Computers
Desktop Computers (Home, Commercial) Laptop (Home, Commercial) Workstation Server Desktop vs Workstation Desktop vs Servers

Workstation vs Desktop
Workstations are used for mission critical applications like Satellite image processing Ex: NASA, APSARAC Workstations come with high power processors, 3D graphic Cards, multiple port for Scanners, printers More expensive components therefore highly priced

Desktop vs Server
Servers designed to run continuously more than 10 years without shutdown Xeon, Itanium processors SCSI Hard disks High caliber fans for cooling Multi Processors, Multiple Hard disks Hot pluggable

Computer Hardware
Input Devices CPU (Central Processing Unit) Memory--RAM Storage Devices Output Devices

Input Devices
Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands. Primary input device: Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in commands and data. Mouse or trackball enhances users ability to input commands, manipulate text, images. Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device. Light Pen Touch Screen Scanners Digital Cameras

Central Processing Unit(CPU)


Brain of Computer Two basic parts

Arithmetic Logic Unit- All calculations

Control UnitSequence of all programs to be executed and manages all computer resources

CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second CPU speeds range from 60 Megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second). CPU types.

Intel Pentium I, II, III, IV Intel Celeron Core 2 Duo 2.66 GHz AMD Athlon X2

Memory (RAM)
RAM or Random Access Memory Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data. Data can be retrieved at random from anywhere. When the computer is off then this memory is empty. Ram is measured by: Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes) Speed (in Nanoseconds)

Memory (RAM)
Amount of RAM installed will determine. Which software applications will run (efficiently)? How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)? RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install. Check your computer manual for RAM type (DDRAM, SDRAM) All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging. Many applications list both a minimum and a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software

Storage Devices
Hard Disk Drives Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes). Typically permanently installed. Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.

Storage Devices
Floppy Disk Drives CD-R CD-R/W, DVD-R CD-R/W , DVD R//W CD R/W

Typically installed on all new computer systems.

Output Devices
Monitors-CRT(Cathode Ray Tube), LCD(Liquid Crystal
Display) Printers Projection systems like LCD, TV

System Specification
Intel Core 2 Duo Processor 2.67 GHz Intel Mother Board 4 GB RAM 320 GB Hard Disk 17 LCD Monitor DVD R/W CD R/W drive Keyboard and Mouse

Summary
What is Computer, Computer Basics of Hardware Workstation vs Desktop Server Vs Desktop System specifications