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Autism, Aspergers & ADHD

Simon Bignell Module Leader Lecture 10


Spring 2010 (6PS048 & 6PS052)

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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 1 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Outline.
Summary Lecture of the module content. Draw your own conclusions based on evidence. Most importantly, to have an opinion you can defend. Recap the lecture content with recommended reading. Draw out themes. Try to reach some conclusions about the relations between ASD and ADHD. More time for questions.

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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 2 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Learning Outcomes Of This Lecture.


On completion of the lecture and with independent study you should be able to: 1. Give an overview of the key issues covered in the module. Express an opinion on the multiple relations between Autism, Aspergers and ADHD .
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Lectures.
Lecture 1 Module Introduction. Lecture 2 ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder. Lecture 3 Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism). Lecture 4 Asperger's Disorder. Lecture 5 Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis. Lecture 6 Aetiology. Lecture 7 Comorbidity. Lecture 8 Treatment For ADHD. Lecture 9 Treatment For Autism. Lecture 10 Autism, Asperger's and ADHD. Lecture 11 Revision & Exam Tips.
Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 4 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

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Lecture 2 ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder.


Content:
Symptoms of ADHD. Inattention. Hyperactivity/Impulsivity. Prevalence. Comorbidity. Developmental course of ADHD. Consequences of ADHD. Lifespan. Controversy.
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Lecture 2 ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder.


Key Points from Lecture:
First described around 100 years ago. Problems with Attention, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity. Affects 2-5% of school age children in UK. Exists on a degree of severity. Boys are six times more likely to be referred for help than girls. Almost always occurs with other disorders/problems.
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Reading
Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111.

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Lecture 3 Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism).


Content: What is Autism? Symptoms of Autism. Prevalence of Autism. How Autism was first recognised. Assessment. Diagnosis.
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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 7 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Lecture 3 Autistic Disorder (Classic Autism).


Key Points from Lecture:
First described around 65 years ago. Exists as a spectrum, a continuum, a syndrome with various degrees of impairment Affects communication, social interactions, and strange behaviour that impair education performance. Generally evident before age 3. A life-long pervasive developmental disorder with genetic susceptibility.
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Reading
Frith, U. & Happe, F. (1994) Autism: Beyond Theory of Mind. Cognition, 50, pp.115-132.
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Lecture 4 Asperger's Disorder.


Content: What is Aspergers Disorder? Symptoms of Aspergers. How Aspergers was first recognised. Characteristics of Aspergers Disorder. How is Aspergers different from Classic Autism.

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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 9 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Lecture 4 Asperger's Disorder.


Key Points from Lecture: A higher-functioning form of Autism characterised by impairments in the social domain, some impairment in the behaviour/interests domain. No significant delays in cognitive or language skills. Motor clumsiness, especially in younger children. Aspergers tend to desire to interact with others, but dont know how to in an appropriate way. May live very successful independent lives in appropriate job settings. Not so easy to spot Aspergers Disorder. Reading Baron-Cohen, S. (1999). The Extreme-Male-Brain Theory of Autism. In Tager-Flusberg, H, (ed) Neurodevelopmental Disorders. MIT Press (1999).
Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 10 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

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Lecture 5 Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis.


Content: What is Classification? DSM-IV-TR / ICD-10. How does assessment happen in the UK? How is a diagnosis of Autism, Aspergers or ADHD made?
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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 11 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Lecture 5 Classification, Assessment & Diagnosis.


Key Points from Lecture:
Diagnosis has to be made on a behavioural basis. Variations in symptoms and severity of impairments. DSM-IV (APA, 1994) & ICD-10 (WHO, 1994).
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Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavioural Disorders. Missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.
Multiple referral routes. Pressures on LEA resources. Multiple assessment protocols and diagnostic tools.
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Lecture 6 Aetiology of ADHD & Autism.


Content: What is ADHD? Theories of ADHD. Response Inhibition Theory. Diet. Scepticism towards ADHD. What is Autism? Theories of Autism. Theory of Mind deficit. Executive Function (Dysfunction) deficit. Weak Central Coherence.
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Lecture 6 Aetiology of ADHD & Autism.


Key Points from Lecture:
The causes of ADHD are not fully known. Likely to have multiple causes and complex interactions. Good evidence for genetic component. Evidence of structural and functional brain abnormality. Barkleys Theory of Response Inhibition in ADHD. Theory of Mind deficit. Executive Dysfunction. Weak Central Coherence.
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Reading
Barkley, R.A. et. al. (2002). International Consensus Statement (January 2002). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(2). p.89-111. Rajendran, G. & Mitchell, P. (in press). Cognitive Theories of Autism. Developmental Review. Frith, U. & Hill, E. (2004) Understanding Autism: Insights From Mind and Brain In Autism: Mind and Brain, ed. Frith, U. & Hill, E. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp.1-19.
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Lecture 7 Comorbidity in ADHD and Autism.


Content: A refresher: DBDs & PDDs. Why is comorbidity important? Are ADHD And Autism Really That Different? Comorbid conditions. What might this overlap of symptoms suggest?
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Lecture 7 Comorbidity in ADHD and Autism.


Key Points from Lecture: A large number of medical conditions are very often associated with ADHD and/or Autism. High overlap between ADHD and ASD symptoms. ADHD and Autism are generally described as separate disorders with separate genetic aetiologies. Most genetic studies exclude cases of Autism from studies on ADHD and vice versa. Reading
Gillberg, C., & Billstedt, E. (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 321330.
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Lecture 8 Treatment For ADHD.


Content: Clinical Symptoms. Intervention Development. Considerations for interventions in ADHD. Non-pharmacologic Treatments. MTA. Medication

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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

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Lecture 8 Treatment For ADHD.


Key Points from Lecture: Conduct problems and symptoms of ADHD may hinder treatment and/or assessment. All strategies do not fit all children. Medication is the treatment of choice for ADHD following MTA. The MTA studies suggest that theres very little benefit from any psychotherapeutic treatment on core symptoms. Stimulant treatment is easily available in the community and behavioural treatment is not. But opinion remains divided. Reading
The MTA Cooperative Group. (1999). A14 Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56. p.1073-1086.

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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 18 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Lecture 9 Treatment For Autism.


Content: Autistic Disorder. Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medication. Behavioural Interventions. Other Treatments. Problems of treatment. Parent advocacy groups. Prognosis.
Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 19 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

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Lecture 9 Treatment For Autism.


Key Points from Lecture:
Many different types of behavioural interventions for ASD. Early intervention is most beneficial. Treatment depends on the individual. Most effective treatment for the disorder is highly structured and intensive Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA). Problems treating people with Autism, communication, noncompliance, comorbidity, intellectual/emotional immaturity.
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Reading
Lovaas, O. I. (1987) Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9.
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Themes.
Misdiagnosis vs. Missed diagnosis. Behavioural/Cognitive vs. Pharmacological treatment. Normal vs. Pathological behaviour. Continuum vs. Categorical classification. Academia & Parental viewpoints. Aetiological vs. Symptomatological. Evidence-based vs. Anecdotal-based methods. Acceptance vs. Rejection of Disorder. Mild vs. Severe degrees of impairment. Increasing incidence vs. Better awareness.
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Relation between ASD & ADHD.


ADHD
Usually spotted in school. Normal IQ. Often pragmatic language problems. High comorbidity with other problems. Often mistaken for bad behaviour.

Classic Autism
Early onset IQ tends to be lower Often fail to develop spoken language Problems with nonverbal communication Tend to be adept at basic motor skills

Aspergers
Later onset Higher range of IQ No language deficit Non-verbal communication problems less severe Clumsiness in basic motor skills
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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 22 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)

Conclusions.
Autism and ADHD : No single cause; no single cure. Hence: A spectrum, a continuum, a syndrome. (debatable?) Its easier to spot Autism at the low-functioning end of the spectrum. ADHD is often diagnosed because of ODD/CD. Although poor parenting does not cause ADHD (or Autism) it can make things worse. ADHD is a preferable diagnosis to Autism. Behavioural (ASD) and Pharmacological (ADHD) treatments can be effective but may not address cause.
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"We are not born to suffer. We are born to thrive. If you live in a dry area and your garden receives little water, you plant plants which like dry soil. But when you are given a plant that likes wet soil, you don't kill it, you water it, you spend one of your 1440 minutes each day watering that plant. Because you know, that given the right care, that little bit of effort can produce spectacular blooms. And so it should be with children like us."
Joshua Muggleton, age 17
Accessed at http://mugsy.org/josh/

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Simon Bignell Psychology, School of Science

Autism, Aspergers & ADHD (6PS048) 24 ADHD, Autism & Aspergers (6PS052)