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TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES IN PLANTS

Necessity for transport in plants


Transport water and minerals Water needed as an important component
of cells Mineral ions needed for chlorophyll synthesis, growth and development Plants have less elaborate and slower transport system than animals

Vascular Tissue
Xylem and phloem form vascular tissue Xylem: gives support and transport water

and mineral ions from root to upper parts of plants. Movement of substances against gravitational force Phloem: transport organic food substances synthesised by leaves during photosynthesis

STEM

ROOT

LEAF

Structure of Xylem

Structure of Xylem
In flowering plants: xylem mainly consists
of vessel, tracheids and parenchyma Xylem vessels: long, hollow, continuous tubes. The cell wall is strengthened by lignin (provide mechanical support). Vessel consists of dead cells. No protoplasm in the vessels

Structure of Xylem
Conifers and ferns do not have xylem
vessels yet tracheids Tracheids: less efficient in conducting water, do not have open ends. Water pass from cell to cell through openings called pits.

Structure of Phloem
Transports organic food substances (sucrose and amino

acids from leaves to other part of the plants) Phloem tissue: consists mainly of sieve tubes and companion cells Sieve tubes: cylindrical tube consists of living sieve tube cells. The cross-walls separated the sieve cells are perforated by small pores. This walls are called sieve plates No nucleus exists in mature sieve tubes Companion cells: found only in flowering plants, adjacent to sieve tubes, has a nucleus, dense cytoplasm and many mitochondria, helps to transport manufactured food from leaf cells to the sieve tubes.

Transport of Substances in Plants


Translocation: two-directional transport of
soluble organic food materials Transpiration: Loss of water in the form of water vapour from the plants to the atmosphere Transpiration creates a transpirational pull, water creates turgidity to the leaves cells and stems.

Pathway of Water from Soils to the Leaves


Root pressure Capillary action Transpirational pull Root pressure Capillary action Transpirational pull

Water

Cell sap in root

Xylem Vessel

Osmosis

Osmosis

Find out what is guttation?

STOMATA IN LEAVES

Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration


Air movement: rate of transpiration
increases in windy condition Temperature: rate of transpiration increases with temperature. Increase temperature increase kinetic energy of water molecules, water move faster through stomata

Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration


Light Intensity: Higher light intensity stimulates

opening of stomata. Sunlight provides heat energy as so increases rate of evaporation Relative humidity: High relative humidity, low transpiration rate, low relative humidity, high transpiration rate Find out how the process of opening and closing of stomata that may influence rate of transpiration