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THE IMPACT OF MICROORGANISMS ON LIFE

BACTERIA
Unicellular organisms. Have a basic cell structure (cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm and genetic materials that are not surrounded by nuclear membrane). Bacteria have cell walls made of peptidoglycan (a polymer) Certain bacteria form spores under unfavorable conditions.

Bacteria
The name of bacteria depends on the shape. Bacillus (rod shape), Coccus(spherical), spiral (spirilium), vibrio (coma). Example:

Lactobacillus sp.

Bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus

Vibrio cholerae

Spiral-shaped: spirilium

EFFECTS OF ABIOTIC COMPONENTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISM


Example of abiotic components: concentration of nutrients, pH, temperature, and light intensity All microorganisms except virus need nutrients and water for reproduction and growth Each species has its own optimum pH and temperature. (bacteria prefer alkaline condition while fungi prefer acidic condition) Most microorganisms are inactive at low temperature

EFFECTS OF ABIOTIC COMPONENTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISM


The optimum temperature for most microbes is between 35oC to 40oC Beyond 60oC, the growth of microorganisms is inhibited The microorganisms and spores can be destroyed at temperature of about 121oC. Light intensity affects the growth of microbes. Most microbes prefer dark places. However photosynthetic microbes need light to produce food.

THE ROLE OF USEFUL MICROORGANISMS IN THE ECOSYSTEM


Decomposition: carried out by a group of saprophytic bacteria and fungi. Decomposers breakdown the dead remains of plants and animals and waste products of animals and release the nutrients into the soil. Nitrogen cycle:

Nitrogen Cycle
Micrococcus sp Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Rhizobium sp

Nitrobacter sp

Nostoc sp

Nitrosomonas sp

THE ROLE OF USEFUL MICROORGANISMS IN THE ECOSYSTEM


Alimentary canals: in termites, ruminants, microbes such as Trychonympha sp (protozoa) produce cellulase to digest cellulose Digestive system in humans: bacteria synthesise vitamin B12 and K. B12 is essential for erythopoiesis while Vit. K is essential for blood clotting.

HARMFUL MICROBES
Harmful microbes are called pathogens Mode of transmission: food & water, droplet transmission, airborne transmission, vectors and direct contact with infected patients. Some diseases can be transmitted trough body fluid such as blood, semen and mucus.

CONTROLLING PATHOGENS
Antibiotics, Antifungal, Antiviral Vaccines Antiseptics (acriflavin and iodine) Disinfectants (formaldehyde, alcohol 70% and carbolic acid.